George F. Wittenberg, M.D., Ph.D. - Publications

Affiliations: 
2006- Neurology University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States 
 2018- Neurology University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States 
Area:
Rehabilitation, Motor Cortex
Website:
http://www.rnel.pitt.edu/people/george-f-wittenberg-md-phd

72 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2022 Liew SL, Lo BP, Donnelly MR, Zavaliangos-Petropulu A, Jeong JN, Barisano G, Hutton A, Simon JP, Juliano JM, Suri A, Wang Z, Abdullah A, Kim J, Ard T, Banaj N, ... ... Wittenberg GF, et al. A large, curated, open-source stroke neuroimaging dataset to improve lesion segmentation algorithms. Scientific Data. 9: 320. PMID 35710678 DOI: 10.1038/s41597-022-01401-7  0.604
2022 Dimyan MA, Harcum S, Ermer E, Boos AF, Conroy SS, Liu F, Horn LB, Xu H, Zhan M, Chen H, Whitall J, Wittenberg GF. Baseline Predictors of Response to Repetitive Task Practice in Chronic Stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 15459683221095171. PMID 35616437 DOI: 10.1177/15459683221095171  0.794
2022 Zavaliangos-Petropulu A, Lo B, Donnelly MR, Schweighofer N, Lohse K, Jahanshad N, Barisano G, Banaj N, Borich MR, Boyd LA, Buetefisch CM, Byblow WD, Cassidy JM, Charalambous CC, Conforto AB, ... ... Wittenberg GF, et al. Chronic Stroke Sensorimotor Impairment Is Related to Smaller Hippocampal Volumes: An ENIGMA Analysis. Journal of the American Heart Association. 11: e025109. PMID 35574963 DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.121.025109  0.763
2022 Wittenberg GF, Tian J, Kortzorg N, Wyers L, Van Halewyck F, Boisgontier MP, Levin O, Swinnen SP, Jonkers I. Normal aging affects unconstrained three-dimensional reaching against gravity with reduced vertical precision and increased co-contraction: a pilot study. Experimental Brain Research. PMID 35171307 DOI: 10.1007/s00221-021-06280-9  0.647
2021 Liew SL, Zavaliangos-Petropulu A, Schweighofer N, Jahanshad N, Lang CE, Lohse KR, Banaj N, Barisano G, Baugh LA, Bhattacharya AK, Bigjahan B, Borich MR, Boyd LA, Brodtmann A, Buetefisch CM, ... ... Wittenberg GF, et al. Smaller spared subcortical nuclei are associated with worse post-stroke sensorimotor outcomes in 28 cohorts worldwide. Brain Communications. 3: fcab254. PMID 34805997 DOI: 10.1093/braincomms/fcab254  0.786
2021 Urbin MA, Tian J, Lafe CW, McKernan GP, Kortzorg N, Wyers L, Van Halewyck F, Boisgontier MP, Levin O, Swinnen SP, Jonkers I, Wittenberg GF. Perturbation of cortical activity elicits regional and age-dependent effects on unconstrained reaching behavior: a pilot study. Experimental Brain Research. PMID 34591126 DOI: 10.1007/s00221-021-06228-z  0.639
2021 Urbin MA, Lafe CW, Simpson TW, Wittenberg GF, Chandrasekaran B, Weber DJ. Electrical stimulation of the external ear acutely activates noradrenergic mechanisms in humans. Brain Stimulation. PMID 34154980 DOI: 10.1016/j.brs.2021.06.002  0.418
2021 Urbin MA, Collinger JL, Wittenberg GF. Corticospinal recruitment of spinal motor neurons in human stroke survivors. The Journal of Physiology. PMID 34021605 DOI: 10.1113/JP281311  0.693
2021 Braun RG, Wittenberg GF. Motor Recovery: How Rehabilitation Techniques and Technologies Can Enhance Recovery and Neuroplasticity. Seminars in Neurology. PMID 33663001 DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1725138  0.807
2020 Ermer E, Harcum S, Lush J, Magder LS, Whitall J, Wittenberg GF, Dimyan MA. Contraction Phase and Force Differentially Change Motor Evoked Potential Recruitment Slope and Interhemispheric Inhibition in Young Versus Old. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 14: 581008. PMID 33132888 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.581008  0.778
2020 Akinlosotu RY, Alissa N, Sorkin JD, Wittenberg GF, Westlake KP. Age-Related Differences in Arm and Trunk Responses to First and Repeated Exposure to Laterally Induced Imbalances. Brain Sciences. 10. PMID 32825342 DOI: 10.3390/brainsci10090574  0.308
2020 Downey JE, Quick KM, Schwed N, Weiss JM, Wittenberg GF, Boninger ML, Collinger JL. The Motor Cortex Has Independent Representations for Ipsilateral and Contralateral Arm Movements But Correlated Representations for Grasping. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). PMID 32494819 DOI: 10.1093/Cercor/Bhaa120  0.701
2020 Liew SL, Zavaliangos-Petropulu A, Jahanshad N, Lang CE, Hayward KS, Lohse KR, Juliano JM, Assogna F, Baugh LA, Bhattacharya AK, Bigjahan B, Borich MR, Boyd LA, Brodtmann A, Buetefisch CM, ... ... Wittenberg GF, et al. The ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Working Group: Big data neuroimaging to study brain-behavior relationships after stroke. Human Brain Mapping. PMID 32310331 DOI: 10.1002/Hbm.25015  0.783
2020 Ermer E, Harcum S, Lush J, Magder LS, Whitall J, Wittenberg GF, Dimyan MA. Contraction Phase and Force Differentially Change Motor Evoked Potential Recruitment Slope and Interhemispheric Inhibition in Young Versus Old Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 14. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.581008  0.722
2019 Harcum S, Conroy SS, Boos A, Ermer E, Xu H, Zhan M, Chen H, Whitall J, Dimyan MA, Wittenberg GF. Methods for an Investigation of Neurophysiological and Kinematic Predictors of Response to Upper Extremity Repetitive Task Practice in Chronic Stroke. Archives of Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Translation. 1. PMID 32292910 DOI: 10.1016/j.arrct.2019.100024  0.789
2019 Conroy SS, Wittenberg GF, Krebs HI, Zhan M, Bever CT, Whitall J. Robot-Assisted Arm Training in Chronic Stroke: Addition of Transition-to-Task Practice. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 1545968319862558. PMID 31328671 DOI: 10.1177/1545968319862558  0.449
2019 Liao WW, Whitall J, Wittenberg GF, Barton JE, McCombe Waller S. Not all brain regions are created equal for improving bimanual coordination in individuals with chronic stroke. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 130: 1218-1230. PMID 31163366 DOI: 10.1016/J.Clinph.2019.04.711  0.459
2018 Du X, Choa FS, Chiappelli J, Wisner KM, Wittenberg G, Adhikari B, Bruce H, Rowland LM, Kochunov P, Hong LE. Aberrant Middle Prefrontal-Motor Cortex Connectivity Mediates Motor Inhibitory Biomarker in Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry. PMID 30126607 DOI: 10.1016/J.Biopsych.2018.06.007  0.386
2018 Du X, Rowland LM, Summerfelt A, Choa FS, Wittenberg GF, Wisner K, Wijtenburg A, Chiappelli J, Kochunov P, Hong LE. Cerebellar-Stimulation Evoked Prefrontal Electrical Synchrony Is Modulated by GABA. Cerebellum (London, England). PMID 29766458 DOI: 10.1007/S12311-018-0945-2  0.369
2018 Liew S, Jahanshad N, MacIntosh BJ, Robertson AD, Wang J, Soekadar S, Marguiles DS, Lotze M, Domin M, Byblow WD, Stinear CM, Westlye LT, Ramos A, Birbaumer N, Wiest R, ... ... Wittenberg G, et al. Abstract TMP48: Subcortical Volumes Associated With Post-Stroke Motor Performance Vary Across Impairment Severity, Time Since Stroke, and Lesion Laterality: an ENIGMA Stroke Recovery Analysis Stroke. 49. DOI: 10.1161/Str.49.Suppl_1.Tmp48  0.707
2017 Kantak S, Jax S, Wittenberg G. Bimanual coordination: A missing piece of arm rehabilitation after stroke. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. PMID 28697575 DOI: 10.3233/Rnn-170737  0.718
2016 Wittenberg GF, Richards LG, Jones-Lush LM, Roys SR, Gullapalli RP, Yang S, Guarino PD, Lo AC. Predictors and brain connectivity changes associated with arm motor function improvement from intensive robotic practice in chronic stroke. F1000research. 5: 2119. PMID 28357039 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.8603.2  0.527
2015 Massie CL, Du Y, Conroy SS, Krebs HI, Wittenberg GF, Bever CT, Whitall J. A Clinically Relevant Method of Analyzing Continuous Change in Robotic Upper Extremity Chronic Stroke Rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. PMID 26671216 DOI: 10.1177/1545968315620301  0.793
2015 Massie CL, Kantak SS, Narayanan P, Wittenberg GF. Timing of motor cortical stimulation during planar robotic training differentially impacts neuroplasticity in older adults. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 126: 1024-32. PMID 25283712 DOI: 10.1016/J.Clinph.2014.06.053  0.789
2015 Beets IA, Gooijers J, Boisgontier MP, Pauwels L, Coxon JP, Wittenberg G, Swinnen SP. Reduced Neural Differentiation Between Feedback Conditions After Bimanual Coordination Training with and without Augmented Visual Feedback. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 25: 1958-69. PMID 24501382 DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhu005  0.553
2014 Rietschel JC, McDonald CG, Goodman RN, Miller MW, Jones-Lush LM, Wittenberg GF, Hatfield BD. Psychophysiological support of increasing attentional reserve during the development of a motor skill. Biological Psychology. 103: 349-56. PMID 25457640 DOI: 10.1016/J.Biopsycho.2014.10.008  0.375
2014 Sawaki L, Butler AJ, Leng X, Wassenaar PA, Mohammad YM, Blanton S, Sathian K, Nichols-Larsen DS, Wolf SL, Good DC, Wittenberg GF. Differential patterns of cortical reorganization following constraint-induced movement therapy during early and late period after stroke: A preliminary study. Neurorehabilitation. 35: 415-26. PMID 25227542 DOI: 10.3233/Nre-141132  0.481
2014 Wittenberg GF, Dimyan MA. How do the physiology and transcallosal effects of the unaffected hemisphere change during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke? Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 125: 1932-3. PMID 24636734 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.02.016  0.785
2014 Boisgontier MP, Wittenberg GF, Fujiyama H, Levin O, Swinnen SP. Complexity of central processing in simple and choice multilimb reaction-time tasks. Plos One. 9: e90457. PMID 24587371 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0090457  0.515
2014 Wittenberg GF, Lovelace CT, Foster DJ, Maldjian JA. Functional neuroimaging of dressing-related skills. Brain Imaging and Behavior. 8: 335-45. PMID 23070748 DOI: 10.1007/S11682-012-9204-1  0.479
2013 Ommaya AK, Adams KM, Allman RM, Collins EG, Cooper RA, Dixon CE, Fishman PS, Henry JA, Kardon R, Kerns RD, Kupersmith J, Lo A, Macko R, McArdle R, McGlinchey RE, ... ... Wittenberg GF, et al. Guest editorial: Opportunities in rehabilitation research. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 50: vii-xxxii. PMID 24203548 DOI: 10.1682/Jrrd.2012.09.0167  0.31
2013 Kantak SS, Jones-Lush LM, Narayanan P, Judkins TN, Wittenberg GF. Rapid plasticity of motor corticospinal system with robotic reach training. Neuroscience. 247: 55-64. PMID 23669007 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuroscience.2013.05.001  0.731
2013 Dutta TM, Josiah AF, Cronin CA, Wittenberg GF, Cole JW. Altered taste and stroke: a case report and literature review. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation. 20: 78-86. PMID 23340074 DOI: 10.1310/tsr2001-78  0.384
2013 Kantak SS, Wittenberg GF, Liao WW, Magder LS, Rogers MW, Waller SM. Posture-related modulations in motor cortical excitability of the proximal and distal arm muscles. Neuroscience Letters. 533: 65-70. PMID 23123777 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.10.048  0.709
2013 Kantak S, Jones-Lush L, Zhan M, Lush J, Narayanan P, McCombe Waller S, Wittenberg G. Plasticity in TMS-evoked movements with robotic reach training Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology. 43: 71-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.neucli.2012.11.015  0.649
2013 Massie C, Kantak S, Narayanan P, Judkins T, Wittenberg G. P 74. Practice and stimulation induce shifts in TMS-evoked 2D movements involving multiple joints of the upper limb Clinical Neurophysiology. 124: e100. DOI: 10.1016/J.Clinph.2013.04.152  0.717
2013 Massie CL, Conroy S, Wittenberg GF, Whitall J, Bever CT. Article 5 (NIDRR) Time course of kinematic improvements in survivors of stroke during upper-extremity robotic rehabilitation Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 94: e2-e3. DOI: 10.1016/J.Apmr.2013.08.020  0.767
2012 Krakauer JW, Carmichael ST, Corbett D, Wittenberg GF. Getting neurorehabilitation right: what can be learned from animal models? Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 26: 923-31. PMID 22466792 DOI: 10.1177/1545968312440745  0.46
2012 Kesar TM, Sawaki L, Burdette JH, Cabrera MN, Kolaski K, Smith BP, O'Shea TM, Koman LA, Wittenberg GF. Motor cortical functional geometry in cerebral palsy and its relationship to disability. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 123: 1383-90. PMID 22153667 DOI: 10.1016/J.Clinph.2011.11.005  0.426
2012 Wittenberg GF. Brain Repair After Stroke The Neurologist. 18: 430. DOI: 10.1097/NRL.0b013e318272f811  0.372
2012 Kantak S, Liao W, Wittenberg GF, Waller SM. Poster 4 Posture-Related Modulation in Motor Cortical Excitability of Proximal and Distal Upper Extremity Muscles Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 93: e15-e16. DOI: 10.1016/J.Apmr.2012.08.038  0.695
2011 Conroy SS, Whitall J, Dipietro L, Jones-Lush LM, Zhan M, Finley MA, Wittenberg GF, Krebs HI, Bever CT. Effect of gravity on robot-assisted motor training after chronic stroke: a randomized trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 92: 1754-61. PMID 21849168 DOI: 10.1016/J.Apmr.2011.06.016  0.429
2011 Wagner TH, Lo AC, Peduzzi P, Bravata DM, Huang GD, Krebs HI, Ringer RJ, Federman DG, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Duncan PW, Siroka A, et al. An economic analysis of robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 42: 2630-2. PMID 21757677 DOI: 10.1161/Strokeaha.110.606442  0.339
2011 Starr CJ, Sawaki L, Wittenberg GF, Burdette JH, Oshiro Y, Quevedo AS, McHaffie JG, Coghill RC. The contribution of the putamen to sensory aspects of pain: insights from structural connectivity and brain lesions. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 134: 1987-2004. PMID 21616963 DOI: 10.1093/Brain/Awr117  0.31
2010 Lo AC, Guarino PD, Richards LG, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, Ringer RJ, Wagner TH, Krebs HI, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Bravata DM, Duncan PW, Corn BH, Maffucci AD, et al. Robot-assisted therapy for long-term upper-limb impairment after stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine. 362: 1772-83. PMID 20400552 DOI: 10.1056/Nejmoa0911341  0.408
2010 Jones-Lush LM, Judkins TN, Wittenberg GF. Arm movement maps evoked by cortical magnetic stimulation in a robotic environment. Neuroscience. 165: 774-81. PMID 19895875 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuroscience.2009.10.065  0.429
2010 Wittenberg GF. Experience, cortical remapping, and recovery in brain disease. Neurobiology of Disease. 37: 252-8. PMID 19770044 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2009.09.007  0.443
2010 Jone-Lush L, Judkins T, Wittenberg G. Poster 140: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Primary Motor Cortex: Effects on Robotic Reach Training Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 91: e47-e48. DOI: 10.1016/J.Apmr.2010.07.170  0.407
2010 Wittenberg G. Poster 72: Resting State Motor Networks are Reorganized After Stroke Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 91: e26-e27. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.07.100  0.355
2009 Wittenberg GF, Schaechter JD. The neural basis of constraint-induced movement therapy. Current Opinion in Neurology. 22: 582-8. PMID 19741529 DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283320229  0.504
2009 Wittenberg GF. Motor mapping in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 51: 134-9. PMID 19740221 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03426.x  0.429
2009 Wittenberg GF. Neural plasticity and treatment across the lifespan for motor deficits in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 51: 130-3. PMID 19740220 DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03425.x  0.453
2009 Lo AC, Guarino P, Krebs HI, Volpe BT, Bever CT, Duncan PW, Ringer RJ, Wagner TH, Richards LG, Bravata DM, Haselkorn JK, Wittenberg GF, Federman DG, Corn BH, Maffucci AD, et al. Multicenter randomized trial of robot-assisted rehabilitation for chronic stroke: methods and entry characteristics for VA ROBOTICS. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 23: 775-83. PMID 19541917 DOI: 10.1177/1545968309338195  0.466
2009 Starr CJ, Sawaki L, Wittenberg GF, Burdette JH, Oshiro Y, Quevedo AS, Coghill RC. Roles of the insular cortex in the modulation of pain: insights from brain lesions. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 29: 2684-94. PMID 19261863 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.5173-08.2009  0.304
2009 Procacci NM, Stanford TR, Wittenberg GF. The relationship between visual orienting and interlimb synchrony in a patient with a superior parietal infarction: a case study. Neurocase. 15: 73-88. PMID 19172431 DOI: 10.1080/13554790802620558  0.357
2009 Jones-Lush L, Judkins T, Wittenberg G. Poster 17: Robotic Training Induced Cortical Plasticity Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 90: e17. DOI: 10.1016/J.Apmr.2009.08.047  0.303
2008 Sawaki L, Butler AJ, Leng X, Wassenaar PA, Mohammad YM, Blanton S, Sathian K, Nichols-Larsen DS, Wolf SL, Good DC, Wittenberg GF. Constraint-induced movement therapy results in increased motor map area in subjects 3 to 9 months after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 22: 505-13. PMID 18780885 DOI: 10.1177/1545968308317531  0.498
2008 Zhang L, Butler AJ, Sun CK, Sahgal V, Wittenberg GF, Yue GH. Fractal dimension assessment of brain white matter structural complexity post stroke in relation to upper-extremity motor function. Brain Research. 1228: 229-40. PMID 18590710 DOI: 10.1016/J.Brainres.2008.06.008  0.482
2007 Wittenberg GF, Bastings EP, Fowlkes AM, Morgan TM, Good DC, Pons TP. Dynamic course of intracortical TMS paired-pulse responses during recovery of motor function after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 21: 568-73. PMID 17522261 DOI: 10.1177/1545968307302438  0.522
2006 Gerloff C, Bushara K, Sailer A, Wassermann EM, Chen R, Matsuoka T, Waldvogel D, Wittenberg GF, Ishii K, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Multimodal imaging of brain reorganization in motor areas of the contralesional hemisphere of well recovered patients after capsular stroke. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 129: 791-808. PMID 16364955 DOI: 10.1093/Brain/Awh713  0.682
2004 Wittenberg GF, Werhahn KJ, Wassermann EM, Herscovitch P, Cohen LG. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and visual cortex in early blind humans. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 20: 1923-7. PMID 15380014 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03630.x  0.481
2003 Wittenberg GF, Chen R, Ishii K, Bushara KO, Eckloff S, Croarkin E, Taub E, Gerber LH, Hallett M, Cohen LG. Constraint-induced therapy in stroke: magnetic-stimulation motor maps and cerebral activation. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 17: 48-57. PMID 12645445 DOI: 10.1177/0888439002250456  0.673
2002 Muellbacher W, Richards C, Ziemann U, Wittenberg G, Weltz D, Boroojerdi B, Cohen L, Hallett M. Improving hand function in chronic stroke Archives of Neurology. 59: 1278-1282. PMID 12164724 DOI: 10.1001/Archneur.59.8.1278  0.696
2002 Ziemann U, Wittenberg GF, Cohen LG. Stimulation-induced within-representation and across-representation plasticity in human motor cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 22: 5563-71. PMID 12097507 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.22-13-05563.2002  0.582
2001 Wittenberg G, Bastings E, Scales C, Good D. Evolution of TMS motor maps during recovery after stroke Neuroimage. 13: 1281. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(01)92595-9  0.48
2001 Yen Y, Bastings E, Burdette J, Scales C, Greenberg J, Wittenberg G, Good D, Pons T. Longitudinal evaluation of activation of primary motor cortex with fMRI on subcortical stroke patients during recovery Neuroimage. 13: 853. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(01)92195-0  0.486
2000 Wittenberg GF, Bastian AJ, Dromerick AW, Thach WT, Powers WJ. Mirror movements complicate interpretation of cerebral activation changes during recovery from subcortical infarction. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 14: 213-21. PMID 11272478 DOI: 10.1177/154596830001400307  0.37
1992 Wittenberg G, Kristan WB. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. II. Role of identified interneurons. Journal of Neurophysiology. 68: 1693-707. PMID 1479439 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.1992.68.5.1693  0.641
1992 Wittenberg G, Kristan WB. Analysis and modeling of the multisegmental coordination of shortening behavior in the medicinal leech. I. Motor output pattern. Journal of Neurophysiology. 68: 1683-92. PMID 1479438 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.1992.68.5.1683  0.642
1990 Wittenberg G, Loer CM, Adamo SA, Kristan WB. Segmental specialization of neuronal connectivity in the leech. Journal of Comparative Physiology. a, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 167: 453-9. PMID 2258834 DOI: 10.1007/Bf00190815  0.748
1989 Lockery SR, Wittenberg G, Kristan WB, Cottrell GW. Function of identified interneurons in the leech elucidated using neural networks trained by back-propagation. Nature. 340: 468-71. PMID 2755509 DOI: 10.1038/340468a0  0.763
1988 Kristan WB, Wittenberg G, Nusbaum MP, Stern-Tomlinson W. Multifunctional interneurons in behavioral circuits of the medicinal leech. Experientia. 44: 383-9. PMID 3286283 DOI: 10.1007/BF01940531  0.691
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