Isaac Chiu - Publications

Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States 
Pain, Neuro-immune interactions

70 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2019 Baral P, Udit S, Chiu IM. Pain and immunity: implications for host defence. Nature Reviews. Immunology. PMID 30874629 DOI: 10.1038/s41577-019-0147-2  1
2018 Baral P, Umans BD, Li L, Wallrapp A, Bist M, Kirschbaum T, Wei Y, Zhou Y, Kuchroo VK, Burkett PR, Yipp BG, Liberles SD, Chiu IM. Author Correction: Nociceptor sensory neurons suppress neutrophil and γδ T cell responses in bacterial lung infections and lethal pneumonia. Nature Medicine. PMID 30013196 DOI: 10.1038/s41591-018-0093-8  1
2018 Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Baddal B, Haarsma R, O'Seaghdha M, Yang NJ, Blake KJ, Portley M, Verri WA, Dale JB, Wessels MR, Chiu IM. Blocking Neuronal Signaling to Immune Cells Treats Streptococcal Invasive Infection. Cell. PMID 29754819 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.04.006  1
2018 Baral P, Umans BD, Li L, Wallrapp A, Bist M, Kirschbaum T, Wei Y, Zhou Y, Kuchroo VK, Burkett PR, Yipp BG, Liberles SD, Chiu IM. Nociceptor sensory neurons suppress neutrophil and γδ T cell responses in bacterial lung infections and lethal pneumonia. Nature Medicine. PMID 29505031 DOI: 10.1038/nm.4501  1
2018 Blake KJ, Baral P, Voisin T, Lubkin A, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Adams KL, Roberson DP, Ma YC, Otto M, Woolf CJ, Torres VJ, Chiu IM. Staphylococcus aureus produces pain through pore-forming toxins and neuronal TRPV1 that is silenced by QX-314. Nature Communications. 9: 37. PMID 29295977 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02448-6  1
2017 Wallrapp A, Riesenfeld SJ, Burkett PR, Abdulnour RE, Nyman J, Dionne D, Hofree M, Cuoco MS, Rodman C, Farouq D, Haas BJ, Tickle TL, Trombetta JJ, Baral P, Klose CSN, ... ... Chiu IM, et al. Erratum: The neuropeptide NMU amplifies ILC2-driven allergic lung inflammation. Nature. PMID 29143821 DOI: 10.1038/nature24480  1
2017 Chavan SS, Ma P, Chiu IM. Neuro-immune Interactions in Inflammation and Host Defense: Implications for Transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation : Official Journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. PMID 28941325 DOI: 10.1111/ajt.14515  0.48
2017 Wallrapp A, Riesenfeld SJ, Burkett PR, Abdulnour RE, Nyman J, Dionne D, Hofree M, Cuoco MS, Rodman C, Farouq D, Haas BJ, Tickle TL, Trombetta JJ, Baral P, Klose CSN, ... ... Chiu IM, et al. The neuropeptide NMU amplifies ILC2-driven allergic lung inflammation. Nature. PMID 28902842 DOI: 10.1038/nature24029  1
2016 Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Verri WA, Chiu IM. Nociceptor Sensory Neuron-Immune Interactions in Pain and Inflammation. Trends in Immunology. PMID 27793571 DOI: 10.1016/  1
2016 Baral P, Mills K, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Chiu IM. Pain and Itch: Beneficial or Harmful to Antimicrobial Defense? Cell Host & Microbe. 19: 755-9. PMID 27281567 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.010  1
2016 Chiu IM, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Woolf CJ. Pain and infection: pathogen detection by nociceptors. Pain. 157: 1192-3. PMID 27183444 DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000559  1
2015 Ghasemlou N, Chiu IM, Julien JP, Woolf CJ. CD11b+Ly6G- myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID 26598697 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1501372112  1
2015 Lin HY, Lee DC, Wang HD, Chi YH, Chiu IM. Activation of FGF1B Promoter and FGF1 Are Involved in Cardiogenesis through the signaling of PKC but not MAPK. Stem Cells and Development. PMID 26414172 DOI: 10.1089/scd.2015.0157  0.32
2015 Talbot S, Abdulnour RE, Burkett PR, Lee S, Cronin SJ, Pascal MA, Laedermann C, Foster SL, Tran JV, Lai N, Chiu IM, Ghasemlou N, DiBiase M, Roberson D, Von Hehn C, et al. Silencing Nociceptor Neurons Reduces Allergic Airway Inflammation. Neuron. PMID 26119026 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.007  1
2015 Lin CH, Hsiao YH, Chang HC, Yeh CF, He CK, Salm EM, Chen C, Chiu IM, Hsu CH. A microfluidic dual-well device for high-throughput single-cell capture and culture. Lab On a Chip. 15: 2928-38. PMID 26060987 DOI: 10.1039/c5lc00541h  0.32
2015 Chiu IM, Barrett LB, Williams EK, Strochlic DE, Lee S, Weyer AD, Lou S, Bryman G, Roberson DP, Ghasemlou N, Piccoli C, Ahat E, Wang V, Cobos EJ, Stucky CL, et al. Correction: Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity. Elife. 4: e06720. PMID 25658835 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.06720  1
2015 Wainger BJ, Buttermore ED, Oliveira JT, Mellin C, Lee S, Saber WA, Wang AJ, Ichida JK, Chiu IM, Barrett L, Huebner EA, Bilgin C, Tsujimoto N, Brenneis C, Kapur K, et al. Modeling pain in vitro using nociceptor neurons reprogrammed from fibroblasts. Nature Neuroscience. 18: 17-24. PMID 25420066 DOI: 10.1038/nn.3886  1
2015 Chen MS, Lin HK, Chiu H, Lee DC, Chung YF, Chiu IM. Human FGF1 promoter is active in ependymal cells and dopaminergic neurons in the brains of F1B-GFP transgenic mice. Developmental Neurobiology. 75: 232-48. PMID 25104610 DOI: 10.1002/dneu.22225  0.32
2015 Chen JH, Lee DC, Chen MS, Ko YC, Chiu IM. Inhibition of neurosphere formation in neural stem/progenitor cells by acrylamide. Cell Transplantation. 24: 779-96. PMID 24380568 DOI: 10.3727/096368913X676925  0.32
2015 Tseng TC, Tao L, Hsieh FY, Wei Y, Chiu IM, Hsu SH. An injectable, self-healing hydrogel to repair the central nervous system Advanced Materials. 27: 3518-3524. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201500762  0.32
2014 Chiu IM, Barrett LB, Williams EK, Strochlic DE, Lee S, Weyer AD, Lou S, Bryman GS, Roberson DP, Ghasemlou N, Piccoli C, Ahat E, Wang V, Cobos EJ, Stucky CL, et al. Transcriptional profiling at whole population and single cell levels reveals somatosensory neuron molecular diversity. Elife. 3. PMID 25525749 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.04660  1
2014 Zhao F, Heesters BA, Chiu I, Gao Y, Shi J, Zhou N, Carroll MC, Xu B. L-Rhamnose-containing supramolecular nanofibrils as potential immunosuppressive materials. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 12: 6816-9. PMID 25078446 DOI: 10.1039/c4ob01362j  1
2014 Hsu YC, Chen SL, Wang YJ, Chen YH, Wang DY, Chen L, Chen CH, Chen HH, Chiu IM. Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons. Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 3: 713-22. PMID 24736401 DOI: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0111  0.32
2014 Isasi R, Andrews PW, Baltz JM, Bredenoord AL, Burton P, Chiu IM, Hull SC, Jung JW, Kurtz A, Lomax G, Ludwig T, McDonald M, Morris C, Ng HH, Rooke H, et al. Identifiability and privacy in pluripotent stem cell research. Cell Stem Cell. 14: 427-30. PMID 24702994 DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.014  0.32
2014 Chang YJ, Chen KW, Chen CJ, Lin MH, Sun YJ, Lee JL, Chiu IM, Chen L. SH2B1β interacts with STAT3 and enhances fibroblast growth factor 1-induced gene expression during neuronal differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 34: 1003-19. PMID 24396070 DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00940-13  0.32
2014 Chen JH, Lee DC, Chiu IM. Cytotoxic effects of acrylamide in nerve growth factor or fibroblast growth factor 1-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Archives of Toxicology. 88: 769-80. PMID 24318646 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-013-1174-6  0.32
2013 Lin CH, Lee DC, Chang HC, Chiu IM, Hsu CH. Single-cell enzyme-free dissociation of neurospheres using a microfluidic chip. Analytical Chemistry. 85: 11920-8. PMID 24228937 DOI: 10.1021/ac402724b  0.32
2013 Chiu IM, Heesters BA, Ghasemlou N, Von Hehn CA, Zhao F, Tran J, Wainger B, Strominger A, Muralidharan S, Horswill AR, Bubeck Wardenburg J, Hwang SW, Carroll MC, Woolf CJ. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation. Nature. 501: 52-7. PMID 23965627 DOI: 10.1038/nature12479  1
2013 Ni HC, Tseng TC, Chen JR, Hsu SH, Chiu IM. Fabrication of bioactive conduits containing the fibroblast growth factor 1 and neural stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15 mm critical gap. Biofabrication. 5: 035010. PMID 23880639 DOI: 10.1088/1758-5082/5/3/035010  0.32
2013 Chiu IM, Morimoto ET, Goodarzi H, Liao JT, O'Keeffe S, Phatnani HP, Muratet M, Carroll MC, Levy S, Tavazoie S, Myers RM, Maniatis T. A neurodegeneration-specific gene-expression signature of acutely isolated microglia from an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Cell Reports. 4: 385-401. PMID 23850290 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.06.018  1
2013 Hsu YC, Chen SL, Wang DY, Chiu IM. Stem cell-based therapy in neural repair. Biomedical Journal. 36: 98-105. PMID 23806879 DOI: 10.4103/2319-4170.113226  0.32
2013 Kao CY, Hsu YC, Liu JW, Lee DC, Chung YF, Chiu IM. The mood stabilizer valproate activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities. Journal of Neurochemistry. 126: 4-18. PMID 23647222 DOI: 10.1111/jnc.12292  0.32
2013 Liu JW, Hsu YC, Kao CY, Su HL, Chiu IM. Leukemia inhibitory factor-induced Stat3 signaling suppresses fibroblast growth factor 1-induced Erk1/2 activation to inhibit the downstream differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells and Development. 22: 1190-7. PMID 23205673 DOI: 10.1089/scd.2012.0229  0.32
2013 Chen YC, Lee DC, Tai NH, Chiu IM. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) for neural applications Diamond-Based Materials For Biomedical Applications. 171-185. DOI: 10.1533/9780857093516.2.171  0.32
2012 Wang WP, Tzeng TY, Wang JY, Lee DC, Lin YH, Wu PC, Chen YP, Chiu IM, Chi YH. The EP300, KDM5A, KDM6A and KDM6B chromatin regulators cooperate with KLF4 in the transcriptional activation of POU5F1. Plos One. 7: e52556. PMID 23272250 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052556  0.32
2012 Chiu IM, von Hehn CA, Woolf CJ. Neurogenic inflammation and the peripheral nervous system in host defense and immunopathology. Nature Neuroscience. 15: 1063-7. PMID 22837035 DOI: 10.1038/nn.3144  1
2012 Hsu YC, Kao CY, Chung YF, Chen MS, Chiu IM. Ciliogenic RFX transcription factors regulate FGF1 gene promoter. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 113: 2511-22. PMID 22415835 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.24127  0.32
2012 Hsu SH, Lin Y, Lin TC, Tseng TC, Lee HT, Liao YC, Chiu IM. Spheroid formation from neural stem cells on chitosan membranes Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. 32: 85-90. DOI: 10.5405/jmbe.864  0.32
2011 Wang TC, Chiu H, Chang YJ, Hsu TY, Chiu IM, Chen L. The adaptor protein SH2B3 (Lnk) negatively regulates neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and cortical neurons. Plos One. 6: e26433. PMID 22028877 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026433  0.32
2011 Fu KY, Dai LG, Chiu IM, Chen JR, Hsu SH. Sciatic nerve regeneration by microporous nerve conduits seeded with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfected neural stem cells. Artificial Organs. 35: 363-72. PMID 21314831 DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2010.01105.x  0.32
2010 Chen JH, Tsou TC, Chiu IM, Chou CC. Proliferation inhibition, DNA damage, and cell-cycle arrest of human astrocytoma cells after acrylamide exposure. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 23: 1449-58. PMID 20734998 DOI: 10.1021/tx1000893  0.32
2010 Haas MS, Alicot EM, Schuerpf F, Chiu I, Li J, Moore FD, Carroll MC. Blockade of self-reactive IgM significantly reduces injury in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular Research. 87: 618-27. PMID 20462867 DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvq141  1
2010 Chen CW, Liu CS, Chiu IM, Shen SC, Pan HC, Lee KH, Lin SZ, Su HL. The signals of FGFs on the neurogenesis of embryonic stem cells. Journal of Biomedical Science. 17: 33. PMID 20429889 DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-17-33  0.32
2010 Chen YC, Lee DC, Tsai TY, Hsiao CY, Liu JW, Kao CY, Lin HK, Chen HC, Palathinkal TJ, Pong WF, Tai NH, Lin IN, Chiu IM. Induction and regulation of differentiation in neural stem cells on ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films. Biomaterials. 31: 5575-87. PMID 20427083 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.03.061  0.32
2010 Kim SS, Ye C, Kumar P, Chiu I, Subramanya S, Wu H, Shankar P, Manjunath N. Targeted delivery of siRNA to macrophages for anti-inflammatory treatment. Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 18: 993-1001. PMID 20216529 DOI: 10.1038/mt.2010.27  1
2010 Hsu YC, Liao WC, Kao CY, Chiu IM. Regulation of FGF1 gene promoter through transcription factor RFX1. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285: 13885-95. PMID 20189986 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.081463  0.32
2010 Ni HC, Lin ZY, Hsu SH, Chiu IM. The use of air plasma in surface modification of peripheral nerve conduits. Acta Biomaterialia. 6: 2066-76. PMID 20040388 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.12.038  0.32
2009 Chiu IM, Phatnani H, Kuligowski M, Tapia JC, Carrasco MA, Zhang M, Maniatis T, Carroll MC. Activation of innate and humoral immunity in the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106: 20960-5. PMID 19933335 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0911405106  1
2009 Chen JH, Wu KY, Chiu IM, Tsou TC, Chou CC. Acrylamide-induced astrogliotic and apoptotic responses in human astrocytoma cells. Toxicology in Vitro : An International Journal Published in Association With Bibra. 23: 855-61. PMID 19426797 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.04.015  0.32
2009 Lee DC, Hsu YC, Chung YF, Hsiao CY, Chen SL, Chen MS, Lin HK, Chiu IM. Isolation of neural stem/progenitor cells by using EGF/FGF1 and FGF1B promoter-driven green fluorescence from embryonic and adult mouse brains. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 41: 348-63. PMID 19409495 DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2009.04.010  0.32
2009 Chen YC, Lee DC, Hsiao CY, Chung YF, Chen HC, Thomas JP, Pong WF, Tai NH, Lin IN, Chiu IM. The effect of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Biomaterials. 30: 3428-35. PMID 19406465 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.03.058  0.32
2009 Lin WF, Chen CJ, Chang YJ, Chen SL, Chiu IM, Chen L. SH2B1beta enhances fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth through MEK-ERK1/2-STAT3-Egr1 pathway. Cellular Signalling. 21: 1060-72. PMID 19249349 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2009.02.009  0.32
2009 Hsu YC, Lee DC, Chen SL, Liao WC, Lin JW, Chiu WT, Chiu IM. Brain-specific 1B promoter of FGF1 gene facilitates the isolation of neural stem/progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent capacities. Developmental Dynamics : An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. 238: 302-14. PMID 18855895 DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.21753  0.32
2007 Hsu YC, Lee DC, Chiu IM. Neural stem cells, neural progenitors, and neurotrophic factors. Cell Transplantation. 16: 133-50. PMID 17474295  0.32
2006 Ma Y, Li J, Chiu I, Wang Y, Sloane JA, Lü J, Kosaras B, Sidman RL, Volpe JJ, Vartanian T. Toll-like receptor 8 functions as a negative regulator of neurite outgrowth and inducer of neuronal apoptosis. The Journal of Cell Biology. 175: 209-15. PMID 17060494 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200606016  1
2006 Zhang M, Alicot EM, Chiu I, Li J, Verna N, Vorup-Jensen T, Kessler B, Shimaoka M, Chan R, Friend D, Mahmood U, Weissleder R, Moore FD, Carroll MC. Identification of the target self-antigens in reperfusion injury. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203: 141-52. PMID 16390934 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20050390  1
2005 Hung KW, Kumar TK, Kathir KM, Xu P, Ni F, Ji HH, Chen MC, Yang CC, Lin FP, Chiu IM, Yu C. Solution structure of the ligand binding domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor: role of heparin in the activation of the receptor. Biochemistry. 44: 15787-98. PMID 16313182 DOI: 10.1021/bi051030n  0.32
2004 Martineau Y, Le Bec C, Monbrun L, Allo V, Chiu IM, Danos O, Moine H, Prats H, Prats AC. Internal ribosome entry site structural motifs conserved among mammalian fibroblast growth factor 1 alternatively spliced mRNAs. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 24: 7622-35. PMID 15314170 DOI: 10.1128/MCB.24.17.7622-7635.2004  0.32
2004 Zhang M, Austen WG, Chiu I, Alicot EM, Hung R, Ma M, Verna N, Xu M, Hechtman HB, Moore FD, Carroll MC. Identification of a specific self-reactive IgM antibody that initiates intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101: 3886-91. PMID 14999103 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0400347101  0.4
2002 Weiss WA, Israel M, Cobbs C, Holland E, James CD, Louis DN, Marks C, McClatchey AI, Roberts T, Van Dyke T, Wetmore C, Chiu IM, Giovannini M, Guha A, Higgins RJ, et al. Neuropathology of genetically engineered mice: consensus report and recommendations from an international forum. Oncogene. 21: 7453-63. PMID 12386807 DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1205936  0.32
2002 Dungan KM, Wei TY, Nace JD, Poulin ML, Chiu IM, Lang JC, Tassava RA. Expression and biological effect of urodele fibroblast growth factor 1: relationship to limb regeneration. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 292: 540-54. PMID 12115937 DOI: 10.1002/jez.10077  0.32
2002 Arunkumar AI, Kumar TK, Kathir KM, Srisailam S, Wang HM, Leena PS, Chi YH, Chen HC, Wu CH, Wu RT, Chang GG, Chiu IM, Yu C. Oligomerization of acidic fibroblast growth factor is not a prerequisite for its cell proliferation activity. Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. 11: 1050-61. PMID 11967362 DOI: 10.1110/ps.2270102  0.32
2000 Chiu IM, Touhalisky K, Liu Y, Yates A, Frostholm A. Tumorigenesis in transgenic mice in which the SV40 T antigen is driven by the brain-specific FGF1 promoter. Oncogene. 19: 6229-39. PMID 11175337 DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1204021  0.32
2000 Arunkumar AI, Srisailam S, Kumar TK, Kathir KM, Peng CL, Chen C, Chiu IM, Yu C. Letter to the editor: 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignments of the acidic fibroblast growth factor from Notopthalmus viridescens. Journal of Biomolecular Nmr. 17: 279-80. PMID 10959639 DOI: 10.1023/A:1008339701691  0.32
1999 Patrie KM, Botelho MJ, Franklin K, Chiu IM. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling identify a crucial amino acid in specifying the heparin affinity of FGF-1. Biochemistry. 38: 9264-72. PMID 10413500 DOI: 10.1021/bi9903345  0.32
1998 McAndrew PE, Frostholm A, Evans JE, Zdilar D, Goldowitz D, Chiu IM, Burghes AH, Rotter A. Novel receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTPrho) and acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) transcripts delineate a rostrocaudal boundary in the granule cell layer of the murine cerebellar cortex. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 391: 444-55. PMID 9486824 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19980222)391:4<444::AID-CNE3>3.0.CO;2-0  0.32
1997 Poulin ML, Botelho MJ, Chiu IM. Cloning and interspecies comparisons of three newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) fibroblast growth factor receptor sequences. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 175: 11-9. PMID 9350028 DOI: 10.1023/A:1006855524371  0.32
1997 Patrie K, Botelho MJ, Ray SK, Mehta VB, Chiu IM. Amphibian FGF-1 is structurally and functionally similar to but antigenically distinguishable from its mammalian counterpart. Growth Factors (Chur, Switzerland). 14: 39-57. PMID 9086327  0.32
1996 Alam KY, Frostholm A, Hackshaw KV, Evans JE, Rotter A, Chiu IM. Characterization of the 1B promoter of fibroblast growth factor 1 and its expression in the adult and developing mouse brain. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271: 30263-71. PMID 8939980 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.271.47.30263  0.32
1995 Myers RL, Ray SK, Eldridge R, Chotani MA, Chiu IM. Functional characterization of the brain-specific FGF-1 promoter, FGF-1.B. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270: 8257-66. PMID 7713933 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.270.14.8257  0.32
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