Jennifer Coull, Ph.D. - Publications

CNRS, Aix-Marseille University 

183 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2021 Grasso CL, Ziegler JC, Mirault J, Coull JT, Montant M. As time goes by: Space-time compatibility effects in word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition. PMID 33829839 DOI: 10.1037/xlm0001007  0.01
2021 Chassignolle M, Jovanovic L, Schmidt-Mutter C, Behr G, Giersch A, Coull JT. Dopamine Precursor Depletion in Healthy Volunteers Impairs Processing of Duration but Not Temporal Order. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 1-18. PMID 33656394 DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_01700  0.01
2020 Chassignolle M, Giersch A, Coull JT. Evidence for visual temporal order processing below the threshold for conscious perception. Cognition. 207: 104528. PMID 33296792 DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104528  0.01
2020 Korolczuk I, Burle B, Coull JT, Smigasiewicz K. Mechanisms of Impulsive Responding to Temporally Predictable Events as Revealed by Electromyography. Neuroscience. 428: 13-22. PMID 31918009 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.12.022  0.01
2019 Thomas E, French R, Alizee G, Coull JT. HAVING YOUR CAKE AND EATING IT: FASTER RESPONSES WITH REDUCED MUSCULAR ACTIVATION WHILE LEARNING A TEMPORAL INTERVAL. Neuroscience. PMID 31082534 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.05.003  0.01
2019 Monier F, Droit-Volet S, Coull JT. The beneficial effect of synchronized action on motor and perceptual timing in children. Developmental Science. e12821. PMID 30803107 DOI: 10.1111/desc.12821  0.28
2019 Droit-Volet S, Lorandi F, Coull JT. Explicit and implicit timing in aging. Acta Psychologica. 193: 180-189. PMID 30654273 DOI: 10.1016/J.Actpsy.2019.01.004  0.08
2018 Shafiei G, Zeighami Y, Clark CA, Coull JT, Nagano-Saito A, Leyton M, Dagher A, Mišic B. Dopamine Signaling Modulates the Stability and Integration of Intrinsic Brain Networks. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). PMID 30357316 DOI: 10.1093/Cercor/Bhy264  0.01
2018 Coull JT, Droit-Volet S. Explicit Understanding of Duration Develops Implicitly through Action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 22: 923-937. PMID 30266151 DOI: 10.1016/J.Tics.2018.07.011  0.04
2018 Coull JT, Johnson KA, Droit-Volet S. A Mental Timeline for Duration From the Age of 5 Years Old. Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1155. PMID 30042709 DOI: 10.3389/Fpsyg.2018.01155  0.01
2018 Korolczuk I, Burle B, Coull JT. The costs and benefits of temporal predictability: impaired inhibition of prepotent responses accompanies increased activation of task-relevant responses. Cognition. 179: 102-110. PMID 29935426 DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.006  0.01
2018 Ciullo V, Piras F, Vecchio D, Banaj N, Coull JT, Spalletta G. Predictive timing disturbance is a precise marker of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. Cognition. 12: 42-49. PMID 29928596 DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2018.04.001  0.01
2018 Martin B, Franck N, Cermolacce M, Coull JT, Giersch A. Minimal Self and Timing Disorders in Schizophrenia: A Case Report. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 12: 132. PMID 29686612 DOI: 10.3389/Fnhum.2018.00132  0.01
2017 Comte M, Zendjidjian XY, Coull JT, Cancel A, Boutet C, Schneider FC, Sage T, Lazerges PE, Jaafari N, Ibrahim EC, Azorin JM, Blin O, Fakra E. Impaired cortico-limbic functional connectivity in schizophrenia patients during emotion processing. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. PMID 29069508 DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsx083  0.01
2017 Martin B, Franck N, Cermolacce M, Falco A, Benair A, Etienne E, Weibel S, Coull JT, Giersch A. Fragile temporal prediction in patients with schizophrenia is related to minimal self disorders. Scientific Reports. 7: 8278. PMID 28811493 DOI: 10.1038/S41598-017-07987-Y  0.01
2017 Charras P, Droit-Volet S, Brechet C, Coull JT. The spatial representation of time can be flexibly oriented in the frontal or lateral planes from an early age. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance. 43: 832-845. PMID 28345949 DOI: 10.1037/Xhp0000349  0.12
2016 Johnson KA, Bryan M, Polonowita K, Decroupet D, Coull JT. Isochronous Sequential Presentation Helps Children Orient Their Attention in Time. Frontiers in Psychology. 7: 1417. PMID 27713713 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01417  0.01
2016 Coull JT, Cotti J, Vidal F. Differential roles for parietal and frontal cortices in fixed versus evolving temporal expectations: Dissociating prior from posterior temporal probabilities with fMRI. Neuroimage. PMID 27431757 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.07.036  0.01
2016 Droit-Volet S, Coull JT. Distinct developmental trajectories for explicit and implicit timing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 150: 141-154. PMID 27295205 DOI: 10.1016/J.Jecp.2016.05.010  0.08
2016 Coull JT, Vidal F, Burle B. When to act, or not to act: That's the SMA's question Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 8: 14-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.01.003  1
2015 Coull JT, Charras P, Donadieu M, Droit-Volet S, Vidal F. SMA Selectively Codes the Active Accumulation of Temporal, Not Spatial, Magnitude. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 27: 2281-98. PMID 26226079 DOI: 10.1162/Jocn_A_00854  1
2015 Droit-Volet S, Coull J. The Developmental Emergence of the Mental Time-Line: Spatial and Numerical Distortion of Time Judgement. Plos One. 10: e0130465. PMID 26135743 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0130465  1
2015 Johnson KA, Burrowes E, Coull JT. Children can implicitly, but not voluntarily, direct attention in time. Plos One. 10: e0123625. PMID 25881188 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123625  1
2015 Comte M, Cancel A, Coull JT, Schön D, Reynaud E, Boukezzi S, Rousseau PF, Robert G, Khalfa S, Guedj E, Blin O, Weinberger DR, Fakra E. Effect of trait anxiety on prefrontal control mechanisms during emotional conflict. Human Brain Mapping. 36: 2207-14. PMID 25664956 DOI: 10.1002/Hbm.22765  1
2015 Coull JD, Atkins NR. The influence of boundary conditions on tip leakage flow Journal of Turbomachinery. 137. DOI: 10.1115/1.4028796  1
2015 De Luca A, Haneef I, Coull JD, Ali SZ, Falco C, Udrea F. High-Sensitivity Single Thermopile SOI CMOS MEMS Thermal Wall Shear Stress Sensor Ieee Sensors Journal. 15: 5561-5568. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2015.2444798  1
2015 Coull JT. Directing Attention in Time as a Function of Temporal Expectation Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. 2: 687-693. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00359-6  1
2015 Coull JT. A Frontostriatal Circuit for Timing the Duration of Events Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference. 3: 565-570. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00285-2  1
2015 Caloni S, Shahpar S, Coull JD. Numerical investigations of different tip designs for shroudless turbine blades 11th European Conference On Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics, Etc 2015 1
2014 Coull JT. Getting the timing right: experimental protocols for investigating time with functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 829: 237-64. PMID 25358714 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1782-2_13  1
2014 Comte M, Schön D, Coull JT, Reynaud E, Khalfa S, Belzeaux R, Ibrahim EC, Guedj E, Blin O, Weinberger DR, Fakra E. Dissociating Bottom-Up and Top-Down Mechanisms in the Cortico-Limbic System during Emotion Processing. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). PMID 25165065 DOI: 10.1093/Cercor/Bhu185  0.01
2014 Deck MK, Anderson ES, Buckner RJ, Colasante G, Davis TE, Coull JM, Crystal B, Latta PD, Fuchs M, Fuller D, Harris W, Hazen K, Klimas LL, Lindao D, Meltzer MC, et al. Rapid detection of Enterococcus spp. direct from blood culture bottles using Enterococcus QuickFISH method: a multicenter investigation. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 78: 338-42. PMID 24439447 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.12.004  1
2014 Stender H, Williams B, Coull J. PNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for rapid microbiology and cytogenetic analysis. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1050: 167-78. PMID 24297359 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-553-8_14  1
2014 Bolger D, Coull JT, Schön D. Metrical rhythm implicitly orients attention in time as indexed by improved target detection and left inferior parietal activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 26: 593-605. PMID 24168222 DOI: 10.1162/Jocn_A_00511  1
2014 Coull JD, Atkins NR, Hodson HP. High efficiency cavity winglets for high pressure turbines Proceedings of the Asme Turbo Expo. 2. DOI: 10.1115/GT2014-25261  1
2014 Coull JD, Atkins NR, Hodson HP. Winglets for improved aerothermal performance of high pressure turbines Journal of Turbomachinery. 136. DOI: 10.1115/1.4026909  1
2014 Falco C, De Luca A, Sarfraz S, Haneef I, Coull J, Ali SZ, Udrea F. 3D modelling of a thermopile-based SOI CMOS thermal wall shear stress sensor Proceedings of the International Semiconductor Conference, Cas. 277-280. DOI: 10.1109/SMICND.2014.6966459  1
2014 Falco C, De Luca AD, Sarfraz S, Haneef I, Coull J, Ali SZ, Udrea F. 3D multiphysics modelling of an SOI CMOS MEMS thermal wall shear stress sensor Procedia Engineering. 87: 628-631. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.567  1
2013 Gagnon M, Bergeron MJ, Lavertu G, Castonguay A, Tripathy S, Bonin RP, Perez-Sanchez J, Boudreau D, Wang B, Dumas L, Valade I, Bachand K, Jacob-Wagner M, Tardif C, Kianicka I, ... Coull JA, et al. Chloride extrusion enhancers as novel therapeutics for neurological diseases. Nature Medicine. 19: 1524-8. PMID 24097188 DOI: 10.1038/nm.3356  1
2013 Coull JT, Davranche K, Nazarian B, Vidal F. Functional anatomy of timing differs for production versus prediction of time intervals. Neuropsychologia. 51: 309-19. PMID 22964490 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.08.017  1
2013 Coull J. The development of fishing communities with special reference to Scotland Managing Britain's Marine and Coastal Environment: Towards a Sustainable Future. 139-156. DOI: 10.4324/9780203391341  1
2013 Rao VN, Tucker PG, Jefferson-Loveday RJ, Coull JD. Investigation of wake induced transition in low-pressure turbines using large eddy simulation Proceedings of the Asme Turbo Expo. 6. DOI: 10.1115/GT2013-94418  1
2013 De Luca A, Haneef I, Coull J, Ali SZ, Falco C, Udrea F. A thermopile based SOI CMOS MEMS wall shear stress sensor Proceedings of the International Semiconductor Conference, Cas. 1: 59-62. DOI: 10.1109/SMICND.2013.6688088  1
2013 Nagabhushana Rao V, Tucker PG, Jefferson-Loveday RJ, Coull JD. Large eddy simulations in low-pressure turbines: Effect of wakes at elevated free-stream turbulence International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 43: 85-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2013.03.003  1
2012 Coull JT, Hwang HJ, Leyton M, Dagher A. Dopamine precursor depletion impairs timing in healthy volunteers by attenuating activity in putamen and supplementary motor area. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 16704-15. PMID 23175824 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1258-12.2012  1
2012 Deck MK, Anderson ES, Buckner RJ, Colasante G, Coull JM, Crystal B, Della Latta P, Fuchs M, Fuller D, Harris W, Hazen K, Klimas LL, Lindao D, Meltzer MC, Morgan M, et al. Multicenter evaluation of the Staphylococcus QuickFISH method for simultaneous identification of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci directly from blood culture bottles in less than 30 minutes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 50: 1994-8. PMID 22493336 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00225-12  1
2012 Vangkilde S, Coull JT, Bundesen C. Great expectations: temporal expectation modulates perceptual processing speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance. 38: 1183-91. PMID 22250866 DOI: 10.1037/A0026343  1
2012 Evans S, Coull J, Haneef I, Hodson H. Minimizing the loss produced by a turbulent separation using vortex generator jets Aiaa Journal. 50: 778-787. DOI: 10.2514/1.J050790  1
2012 Coull JD, Hodson HP. Blade Loading and Its Application in the Mean-Line Design of Low Pressure Turbines Journal of Turbomachinery. 135. DOI: 10.1115/1.4006588  1
2012 Coull JT. Neural substrates of temporal attentional orienting Attention and Time. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563456.003.0031  1
2012 Nobre AC, Coull JT. Introduction Attention and Time. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563456.001.0001  1
2012 Siewiorek N, Shuman LJ, Besterfield-Sacre ME, Vidic NS, Bursic KM, Streiner S, Coull J. Students' confidence levels in technical concept knowledge with Model Eliciting Activities Asee Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings 1
2011 Vangkilde S, Bundesen C, Coull JT. Prompt but inefficient: nicotine differentially modulates discrete components of attention. Psychopharmacology. 218: 667-80. PMID 21629997 DOI: 10.1007/S00213-011-2361-X  1
2011 Coull JT, Morgan H, Cambridge VC, Moore JW, Giorlando F, Adapa R, Corlett PR, Fletcher PC. Ketamine perturbs perception of the flow of time in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology. 218: 543-56. PMID 21603893 DOI: 10.1007/S00213-011-2346-9  1
2011 Piras F, Coull JT. Implicit, predictive timing draws upon the same scalar representation of time as explicit timing. Plos One. 6: e18203. PMID 21464972 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018203  1
2011 Davranche K, Nazarian B, Vidal F, Coull J. Orienting attention in time activates left intraparietal sulcus for both perceptual and motor task goals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 23: 3318-30. PMID 21452942 DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_00030  1
2011 Rohenkohl G, Coull JT, Nobre AC. Behavioural dissociation between exogenous and endogenous temporal orienting of attention. Plos One. 6: e14620. PMID 21297968 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0014620  1
2011 Cotti J, Rohenkohl G, Stokes M, Nobre AC, Coull JT. Functionally dissociating temporal and motor components of response preparation in left intraparietal sulcus. Neuroimage. 54: 1221-30. PMID 20868756 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuroimage.2010.09.038  1
2011 Coull JT, Cheng RK, Meck WH. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates of timing. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 36: 3-25. PMID 20668434 DOI: 10.1038/Npp.2010.113  1
2011 Coull JD, Hodson HP. Predicting the profile loss of high-lift low pressure turbines Journal of Turbomachinery. 134. DOI: 10.1115/1.4002961  1
2011 Coull JD, Hodson HP. Unsteady boundary-layer transition in low-pressure turbines Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 681: 370-410. DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2011.204  1
2011 Coull JT. Discrete Neuroanatomical Substrates for Generating and Updating Temporal Expectations Space, Time and Number in the Brain. 87-101. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385948-8.00007-4  1
2010 Coull JD, Thomas RL, Hodson HP. Velocity distributions for low pressure turbines Journal of Turbomachinery. 132: 1-13. DOI: 10.1115/1.3192149  1
2009 Coull JT. Neural substrates of mounting temporal expectation. Plos Biology. 7: e1000166. PMID 19652699 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000166  1
2009 Coull JA, Gagnon M. The manipulation of cation-chloride co-transporters as a novel means to treat persistent pain, epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England : 2000). 10: 56-61. PMID 19127487  1
2008 Coull JT, Vidal F, Goulon C, Nazarian B, Craig C. Using time-to-contact information to assess potential collision modulates both visual and temporal prediction networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2: 10. PMID 18958210 DOI: 10.3389/neuro.09.010.2008  1
2008 Coull J, Nobre A. Dissociating explicit timing from temporal expectation with fMRI. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 18: 137-44. PMID 18692573 DOI: 10.1016/J.Conb.2008.07.011  1
2008 Coull JT, Nazarian B, Vidal F. Timing, storage, and comparison of stimulus duration engage discrete anatomical components of a perceptual timing network. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 20: 2185-97. PMID 18457512 DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2008.20153  1
2008 Huang Y, Coull JM. Diamine catalyzed hemicyanine dye formation from nonfluorescent precursors through DNA programmed chemistry. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130: 3238-9. PMID 18302371 DOI: 10.1021/ja0753602  1
2008 Haneef I, Coull JD, Ali SZ, Udrea F, Hodson HP. Laminar to turbulent flow transition measurements using an array of SOI-CMOS MEMS wall shear stress sensors Proceedings of Ieee Sensors. 57-61. DOI: 10.1109/ICSENS.2008.4716382  1
2007 Groom AF, Coull JT. Army amputees from the Falklands--a review. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 153: 41-2; discussion 43. PMID 18214084  1
2007 Nobre A, Correa A, Coull J. The hazards of time. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 17: 465-70. PMID 17709239 DOI: 10.1016/J.Conb.2007.07.006  1
2007 Haneef I, Ali SZ, Udrea F, Coull JD, Hodson HP. High performance SOI-CMOS wall shear stress sensors Proceedings of Ieee Sensors. 1060-1064. DOI: 10.1109/ICSENS.2007.4388588  1
2006 Haff LA, Wilson CG, Huang Y, Benton BK, Bond JF, Stern AM, Begley RF, Coull JM. DNA-programmed chemistry in rapid homogeneous assays for DNA and protein targets. Clinical Chemistry. 52: 2147-8. PMID 18050517 DOI: 10.1373/CLINCHEM.2006.072751  1
2006 Bennett S, Ashford D, Rioja N, Coull J, Elliott D. Integration of intermittent visual samples over time and between the eyes. Journal of Motor Behavior. 38: 439-50. PMID 17138528 DOI: 10.3200/Jmbr.38.6.439-450  1
2006 Macar F, Coull J, Vidal F. The supplementary motor area in motor and perceptual time processing: fMRI studies. Cognitive Processing. 7: 89-94. PMID 16683171 DOI: 10.1007/s10339-005-0025-7  1
2005 Coull JA, Beggs S, Boudreau D, Boivin D, Tsuda M, Inoue K, Gravel C, Salter MW, De Koninck Y. BDNF from microglia causes the shift in neuronal anion gradient underlying neuropathic pain. Nature. 438: 1017-21. PMID 16355225 DOI: 10.1038/Nature04223  1
2005 Cordero-Erausquin M, Coull JA, Boudreau D, Rolland M, De Koninck Y. Differential maturation of GABA action and anion reversal potential in spinal lamina I neurons: impact of chloride extrusion capacity. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 25: 9613-23. PMID 16237166 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1488-05.2005  1
2005 Coull JT. Psychopharmacology of human attention Neurobiology of Attention. 50-56. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012375731-9/50013-6  1
2004 Coull JT. fMRI studies of temporal attention: allocating attention within, or towards, time. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research. 21: 216-26. PMID 15464353 DOI: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.02.011  1
2004 Ylisastigui L, Coull JJ, Rucker VC, Melander C, Bosch RJ, Brodie SJ, Corey L, Sodora DL, Dervan PB, Margolis DM. Polyamides reveal a role for repression in latency within resting T cells of HIV-infected donors. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 190: 1429-37. PMID 15378435 DOI: 10.1086/423822  1
2004 Coull JT, Jones ME, Egan TD, Frith CD, Maze M. Attentional effects of noradrenaline vary with arousal level: selective activation of thalamic pulvinar in humans. Neuroimage. 22: 315-22. PMID 15110021 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.022  1
2004 Nobre AC, Coull JT, Maquet P, Frith CD, Vandenberghe R, Mesulam MM. Orienting attention to locations in perceptual versus mental representations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 16: 363-73. PMID 15072672 DOI: 10.1162/089892904322926700  1
2004 Coull JT, Vidal F, Nazarian B, Macar F. Functional anatomy of the attentional modulation of time estimation. Science (New York, N.Y.). 303: 1506-8. PMID 15001776 DOI: 10.1126/Science.1091573  1
2003 Coull JA, Boudreau D, Bachand K, Prescott SA, Nault F, Sík A, De Koninck P, De Koninck Y. Trans-synaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain. Nature. 424: 938-42. PMID 12931188 DOI: 10.1038/Nature01868  1
2003 Coull JT, Walsh V, Frith CD, Nobre AC. Distinct neural substrates for visual search amongst spatial versus temporal distractors. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research. 17: 368-79. PMID 12880907 DOI: 10.1016/S0926-6410(03)00138-1  1
2003 Nobre AC, Coull JT, Walsh V, Frith CD. Brain activations during visual search: contributions of search efficiency versus feature binding. Neuroimage. 18: 91-103. PMID 12507447 DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2002.1329  1
2003 Coull J, Thiele C. Functional Imaging of Cognitive Psychopharmacology Human Brain Function: Second Edition. 303-327. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012264841-0/50018-4  1
2002 Coull JJ, He G, Melander C, Rucker VC, Dervan PB, Margolis DM. Targeted derepression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat by pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Journal of Virology. 76: 12349-54. PMID 12414976 DOI: 10.1128/Jvi.76.23.12349-12354.2002  1
2002 Radwanska M, Magez S, Perry-O'Keefe H, Stender H, Coull J, Sternberg JM, Büscher P, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ. Direct detection and identification of African trypanosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40: 4295-7. PMID 12409413 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.40.11.4295-4297.2002  1
2002 Margolis DM, Kewn S, Coull JJ, Ylisastigui L, Turner D, Wise H, Hossain MM, Lanier ER, Shaw LM, Back D. The addition of mycophenolate mofetil to antiretroviral therapy including abacavir is associated with depletion of intracellular deoxyguanosine triphosphate and a decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999). 31: 45-9. PMID 12352149  1
2002 Williams B, Stender H, Coull JM. PNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for rapid microbiology and cytogenetic analysis. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 208: 181-93. PMID 12229288 DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-290-2:181  1
2002 Hossain MM, Coull JJ, Drusano GL, Margolis DM. Dose proportional inhibition of HIV-1 replication by mycophenolic acid and synergistic inhibition in combination with abacavir, didanosine, and tenofovir. Antiviral Research. 55: 41-52. PMID 12076750 DOI: 10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00006-2  1
2002 Rigby S, Procop GW, Haase G, Wilson D, Hall G, Kurtzman C, Oliveira K, Von Oy S, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Coull J, Stender H. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes for rapid identification of Candida albicans directly from blood culture bottles. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40: 2182-6. PMID 12037084 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.40.6.2182-2186.2002  1
2002 Khan MA, Elliot D, Coull J, Chua R, Lyons J. Optimal control strategies under different feedback schedules: kinematic evidence. Journal of Motor Behavior. 34: 45-57. PMID 11880249 DOI: 10.1080/00222890209601930  1
2002 Kuhn H, Demidov VV, Coull JM, Fiandaca MJ, Gildea BD, Frank-Kamenetskii MD. Hybridization of DNA and PNA molecular beacons to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA targets. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124: 1097-103. PMID 11829619 DOI: 10.1021/Ja0041324  1
2002 Oliveira K, Procop GW, Wilson D, Coull J, Stender H. Rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus directly from blood cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 40: 247-51. PMID 11773123 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.40.1.247-251.2002  1
2002 Stender H, Fiandaca M, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Coull J. PNA for rapid microbiology. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 48: 1-17. PMID 11733079 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00340-2  1
2001 Coull JR. Fishery development in Scotland in the eighteenth century. Scottish Economic & Social History. 21: 1-21. PMID 19711549  1
2001 Coull JT. Modulation of attention by noradrenergic alpha2-agents varies according to arousal level. Drug News & Perspectives. 14: 5-11. PMID 12819804  0.01
2001 Coull J, Tremblay L, Elliott D. Examining the specificity of practice hypothesis: is learning modality specific? Research Quarterly For Exercise and Sport. 72: 345-54. PMID 11770784 DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2001.10608971  1
2001 Perry-O'Keefe H, Rigby S, Oliveira K, Sørensen D, Stender H, Coull J, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ. Identification of indicator microorganisms using a standardized PNA FISH method. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 47: 281-92. PMID 11714518 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00303-7  1
2001 Keller AF, Coull JA, Chery N, Poisbeau P, De Koninck Y. Region-specific developmental specialization of GABA-glycine cosynapses in laminas I-II of the rat spinal dorsal horn. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 21: 7871-80. PMID 11588160 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.21-20-07871.2001  1
2001 Kuhn H, Demidov VV, Gildea BD, Fiandaca MJ, Coull JC, Frank-Kamenetskii MD. PNA beacons for duplex DNA. Antisense & Nucleic Acid Drug Development. 11: 265-70. PMID 11572603 DOI: 10.1089/108729001317022269  1
2001 Stender H, Sage A, Oliveira K, Broomer AJ, Young B, Coull J. Combination of ATP-bioluminescence and PNA probes allows rapid total counts and identification of specific microorganisms in mixed populations. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 46: 69-75. PMID 11412915 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00256-1  1
2001 Coull JJ, Turner D, Melby T, Betts MR, Lanier R, Margolis DM. A pilot study of the use of mycophenolate mofetil as a component of therapy for multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999). 26: 423-34. PMID 11391161 DOI: 10.1097/00126334-200104150-00004  1
2001 Stender H, Oliveira K, Rigby S, Bargoot F, Coull J. Rapid detection, identification, and enumeration of Escherichia coli by fluorescence in situ hybridization using an array scanner. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 45: 31-9. PMID 11295195 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00218-4  1
2001 Fiandaca MJ, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Gildea BD, Coull JM. Self-reporting PNA/DNA primers for PCR analysis. Genome Research. 11: 609-13. PMID 11282976 DOI: 10.1101/gr.170401  1
2001 Perry-O'Keefe H, Stender H, Broomer A, Oliveira K, Coull J, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ. Filter-based PNA in situ hybridization for rapid detection, identification and enumeration of specific micro-organisms. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 90: 180-9. PMID 11168720 DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01230.x  1
2001 Mieschke PE, Elliott D, Helsen WF, Carson RG, Coull JA. Manual asymmetries in the preparation and control of goal-directed movements. Brain and Cognition. 45: 129-40. PMID 11161367 DOI: 10.1006/Brcg.2000.1262  1
2001 Stender H, Kurtzman C, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Sørensen D, Broomer A, Oliveira K, Perry-O'Keefe H, Sage A, Young B, Coull J. Identification of Dekkera bruxellensis (Brettanomyces) from wine by fluorescence in situ hybridization using peptide nucleic acid probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67: 938-41. PMID 11157265 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67.2.938-941.2001  1
2001 Stender H, Broomer AJ, Oliveira K, Perry-O'Keefe H, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Sage A, Coull J. Rapid detection, identification, and enumeration of Escherichia coli cells in municipal water by chemiluminescent in situ hybridization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67: 142-7. PMID 11133438 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.67.1.142-147.2001  1
2001 Coull JT, Nobre AC, Frith CD. The noradrenergic alpha2 agonist clonidine modulates behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of human attentional orienting and alerting. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 11: 73-84. PMID 11113036 DOI: 10.1093/Cercor/11.1.73  1
2001 Taneja KL, Chavez EA, Coull J, Lansdorp PM. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes for enumeration of specific chromosomes in human cells. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 30: 57-63. PMID 11107176 DOI: 10.1002/1098-2264(2000)9999:9999<::AID-GCC1054>3.0.CO;2-M  0.01
2001 Coull JR. Scottish fishing at the start of the millennium: Towards sustainability under ecological and economic pressure Scottish Geographical Journal. 117: 101-116.  1
2001 Coull JT. Modulation of attention by noradrenergic α2-agents varies according to arousal level Drug News and Perspectives. 14: 5-11.  1
2000 Coull J, Weir PL, Tremblay L, Weeks DJ, Elliott D. Monocular and binocular vision in the control of goal-directed movement. Journal of Motor Behavior. 32: 347-60. PMID 11114228 DOI: 10.1080/00222890009601385  1
2000 Stender H, Broomer A, Oliveira K, Perry-O'Keefe H, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Sage A, Young B, Coull J. Rapid detection, identification, and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bottled water using peptide nucleic acid probes. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 42: 245-53. PMID 11044568 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-7012(00)00196-2  1
2000 Coull JJ, Romerio F, Sun JM, Volker JL, Galvin KM, Davie JR, Shi Y, Hansen U, Margolis DM. The human factors YY1 and LSF repress the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat via recruitment of histone deacetylase 1. Journal of Virology. 74: 6790-9. PMID 10888618 DOI: 10.1128/Jvi.74.15.6790-6799.2000  1
2000 Coull JT, Frith CD, Büchel C, Nobre AC. Orienting attention in time: behavioural and neuroanatomical distinction between exogenous and endogenous shifts. Neuropsychologia. 38: 808-19. PMID 10689056 DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(99)00132-3  1
1999 Coull JR. Penetrating and monitoring the market: the development of the continental market for Scottish herring in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Scottish Economic & Social History. 19: 117-31. PMID 22256393 DOI: 10.3366/sesh.1999.19.2.117  1
1999 Coull JT, Büchel C, Friston KJ, Frith CD. Noradrenergically mediated plasticity in a human attentional neuronal network. Neuroimage. 10: 705-15. PMID 10600416 DOI: 10.1006/nimg.2000.0576  1
1999 Coull JT, Frith CD, Dolan RJ. Dissociating neuromodulatory effects of diazepam on episodic memory encoding and executive function. Psychopharmacology. 145: 213-22. PMID 10463323 DOI: 10.1007/s002130051051  1
1999 Miniussi C, Wilding EL, Coull JT, Nobre AC. Orienting attention in time. Modulation of brain potentials. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 122: 1507-18. PMID 10430834 DOI: 10.1093/Brain/122.8.1507  1
1999 Nobre AC, Coull JT, Frith CD, Mesulam MM. Orbitofrontal cortex is activated during breaches of expectation in tasks of visual attention. Nature Neuroscience. 2: 11-2. PMID 10195173 DOI: 10.1038/4513  1
1999 Büchel C, Coull JT, Friston KJ. The predictive value of changes in effective connectivity for human learning. Science (New York, N.Y.). 283: 1538-41. PMID 10066177 DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5407.1538  1
1999 Coull JT, Büchel C, Friston KJ, Frith CD. Noradrenergically-mediated plasticity of an attentional network Neuroimage. 9: S770.  1
1999 Coull JR. Changing balance of fish production in Scotland Marine Policy. 23: 347-358.  1
1998 Coull JT, Frackowiak RS, Frith CD. Monitoring for target objects: activation of right frontal and parietal cortices with increasing time on task. Neuropsychologia. 36: 1325-34. PMID 9863686 DOI: 10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00035-9  1
1998 Coull JT, Frith CD. Differential activation of right superior parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus by spatial and nonspatial attention. Neuroimage. 8: 176-87. PMID 9740760 DOI: 10.1006/nimg.1998.0354  1
1998 Coull JT, Nobre AC. Where and when to pay attention: the neural systems for directing attention to spatial locations and to time intervals as revealed by both PET and fMRI. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 18: 7426-35. PMID 9736662 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.18-18-07426.1998  1
1998 Richardson MP, Koepp MJ, Brooks DJ, Coull JT, Grasby P, Fish DR, Duncan JS. Cerebral activation in malformations of cortical development. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 121: 1295-304. PMID 9679781 DOI: 10.1093/Brain/121.7.1295  1
1998 Coull JT. Neural correlates of attention and arousal: insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology. Progress in Neurobiology. 55: 343-61. PMID 9654384 DOI: 10.1016/S0301-0082(98)00011-2  1
1998 Coull JT, Büchell C, Wilding E, Frith CD, Nobre AC. Orientation of attention in time: Event-related fMRI Neuroimage. 7: S69. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(18)30902-9  1
1998 Büchel C, Coull JT, Friston KJ. Time dependent changes in effective connectivity during learning assessed using fMRI Neuroimage. 7: S56. DOI: 10.1016/S1053-8119(18)30889-9  1
1998 Gildea BD, Casey S, MacNeill J, Perry-O'Keefe H, Sørensen D, Coull JM. PNA solubility enhancers Tetrahedron Letters. 39: 7255-7258.  1
1998 Mather AS, Needle CL, Coull JR. From resource crisis to sustainability: The forest transition in Denmark International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. 5: 182-193.  1
1997 Coull J. Functional neuroimaging: current developments in PET, fMRI and electrophysiology 3rd International Conference on Functional Mapping of the Human Brain, 20-23 May 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 1: 161-2. PMID 21223896 DOI: 10.1016/S1364-6613(97)01052-8  1
1997 Coull JT, Frith CD, Dolan RJ, Frackowiak RS, Grasby PM. The neural correlates of the noradrenergic modulation of human attention, arousal and learning. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 9: 589-98. PMID 9104600 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.1997.tb01635.x  1
1997 Coull J. Shell fisheries in Scotland: A case of transition from low to high value Scottish Geographical Journal. 113: 168-176.  1
1996 Perry-O'Keefe H, Yao XW, Coull JM, Fuchs M, Egholm M. Peptide nucleic acid pre-gel hybridization: an alternative to southern hybridization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93: 14670-5. PMID 8962112 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.93.25.14670  1
1996 Coull JT, Frith CD, Frackowiak RS, Grasby PM. A fronto-parietal network for rapid visual information processing: a PET study of sustained attention and working memory. Neuropsychologia. 34: 1085-95. PMID 8904746 DOI: 10.1016/0028-3932(96)00029-2  1
1996 Coull JT, Sahakian BJ, Hodges JR. The alpha(2) antagonist idazoxan remediates certain attentional and executive dysfunction in patients with dementia of frontal type. Psychopharmacology. 123: 239-49. PMID 8833417 DOI: 10.1007/BF02246578  1
1996 Coull JJ, Melvin WT, Labus MB, Raynard RS, King J, Munro AL. Evaluation of filamentous bacteriophage as immunogens in Atlantic salmon. Biochemical Society Transactions. 24: 255S. PMID 8736913  1
1996 Labus MB, Coull JJ, Dacanay A, Melvin WT, Andrade-Salas O, Munro AL. Identification and expression of antigens from Lepeophtheirus salmonis for use in vaccination trials. Biochemical Society Transactions. 24: 254S. PMID 8736912  1
1996 Footer M, Egholm M, Kron S, Coull JM, Matsudaira P. Biochemical evidence that a D-loop is part of a four-stranded PNA-DNA bundle. Nickel-mediated cleavage of duplex DNA by a Gly-Gly-His bis-PNA. Biochemistry. 35: 10673-9. PMID 8718856 DOI: 10.1021/bi960486p  1
1996 Rutz WOA, Coull JR. Inter-island passenger shipping in Indonesia: Development of the system: Present characteristics and future requirements Journal of Transport Geography. 4: 275-286. DOI: 10.1016/S0966-6923(96)00028-2  1
1996 Polushin NN, Smirnov IP, Verentchikov AN, Coull JM. Synthesis of oligonucleotides containing 2'-azido-and 2'-amino-2'-deoxyuridine using phosphotriester chemistry Tetrahedron Letters. 37: 3227-3230. DOI: 10.1016/0040-4039(96)00536-9  1
1996 Coull JT. α2-Adrenoceptors in the treatment of dementia: An attentional mechanism? Journal of Psychopharmacology. 10: 43-48.  1
1996 Coull JR. Towards a sustainable economy for the Shetland Islands: Development and management issues in fishing and fish farming Geojournal. 39: 185-194.  1
1996 Coull JR. The sea fisheries of Scotland. A historical geography The Sea Fisheries of Scotland. a Historical Geography 1
1995 Christensen L, Fitzpatrick R, Gildea B, Petersen KH, Hansen HF, Koch T, Egholm M, Buchardt O, Nielsen PE, Coull J, Berg RH. Solid-phase synthesis of peptide nucleic acids. Journal of Peptide Science : An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society. 1: 175-83. PMID 9222994 DOI: 10.1002/psc.310010304  1
1995 Coull JT, Sahakian BJ, Middleton HC, Young AH, Park SB, McShane RH, Cowen PJ, Robbins TW. Differential effects of clonidine, haloperidol, diazepam and tryptophan depletion on focused attention and attentional search. Psychopharmacology. 121: 222-30. PMID 8545528 DOI: 10.1007/BF02245633  1
1995 Coull JT, Middleton HC, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Clonidine and diazepam have differential effects on tests of attention and learning. Psychopharmacology. 120: 322-32. PMID 8524980 DOI: 10.1007/BF02311180  1
1995 Coull JT, Middleton HC, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. Contrasting effects of clonidine and diazepam on tests of working memory and planning. Psychopharmacology. 120: 311-21. PMID 8524979 DOI: 10.1007/BF02311179  1
1995 Egholm M, Christensen L, Dueholm KL, Buchardt O, Coull J, Nielsen PE. Efficient pH-independent sequence-specific DNA binding by pseudoisocytosine-containing bis-PNA. Nucleic Acids Research. 23: 217-22. PMID 7862524  1
1994 Middleton HC, Coull JT, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Clonidine-induced changes in the spectral distribution of heart rate variability correlate with performance on a test of sustained attention. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 8: 1-7. PMID 22298473 DOI: 10.1177/026988119400800101  1
1994 Sahakian BJ, Coull JJ, Hodges JR. Selective enhancement of executive function by idazoxan in a patient with dementia of the frontal lobe type. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 57: 120-1. PMID 8301294 DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.57.1.120  1
1994 Park SB, Coull JT, McShane RH, Young AH, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW, Cowen PJ. Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairments in learning and memory. Neuropharmacology. 33: 575-88. PMID 7984295 DOI: 10.1016/0028-3908(94)90089-2  1
1994 Coull JT. Pharmacological manipulations of the alpha 2-noradrenergic system. Effects on cognition. Drugs & Aging. 5: 116-26. PMID 7981483 DOI: 10.2165/00002512-199405020-00005  1
1994 Takao T, Fukuda H, Coull J, Shimonishi Y. Positive-ion fast-atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of peptide nucleic acids. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : Rcm. 8: 925-8. PMID 7696700 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.1290081203  1
1994 Coull JR. The issue of the effects of pollution from whaling on the Shetland herring fishery in the early 20th century Marine Pollution Bulletin. 28: 389-391. DOI: 10.1016/0025-326X(94)90278-X  1
1994 Sahakian BJ, Coull JT. Nicotine and tetrahydroaminoacradine: Evidence for improved attention in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type Drug Development Research. 31: 80-88.  1
1993 Sahakian BJ, Coull JT. Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer's disease: an assessment of attentional and mnemonic function using CANTAB. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 149: 29-35. PMID 8128835  1
1993 Coull JR. Will a blue revolution follow the green revolution? The modern upsurge of aquaculture Area. 25: 350-357.  1
1992 Coull JR. A comparison of fisheries policy and management in the European Community and Eastern Canada Ocean and Coastal Management. 18: 351-369. DOI: 10.1016/0964-5691(92)90036-K  1
1991 Bodwell JE, Ortí E, Coull JM, Pappin DJ, Smith LI, Swift F. Identification of phosphorylated sites in the mouse glucocorticoid receptor. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266: 7549-55. PMID 2019585  1
1991 Coull JM, Pappin DJC, Mark J, Aebersold R, Köster H. Functionalized membrane supports for covalent protein microsequence analysis Analytical Biochemistry. 194: 110-120. PMID 1867375 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(91)90157-O  1
1991 Köster H, Beck S, Coull JM, Dunne T, Gildea BD, Kissinger C, O'Keeffe T. Oligonucleotide synthesis and multiplex DNA sequencing using chemiluminescent detection Nucleic Acids Symposium Series. 318-321. PMID 1841371  1
1991 Coull JR. Mobility in the Scottish fisheries Scottish Geographical Magazine. 107: 40-46. DOI: 10.1080/00369229118736805  1
1990 Pappin DJC, Coull JM, Köster H. Solid-phase sequence analysis of proteins electroblotted or spotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes Analytical Biochemistry. 187: 10-19. PMID 2372105 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(90)90410-B  1
1990 Coull JT. Military surgery Injury. 21: 270-272. PMID 2242909 DOI: 10.1016/0020-1383(90)90038-V  1
1990 Oildea BD, Coull JM, Köster H. A versatile acid-labile linker for modification of synthetic biomolecules Tetrahedron Letters. 31: 7095-7098. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)97249-6  1
1990 Meyer HE, Hoffmann-Posorke E, Korte H, Donella-Deana A, Brunati AM, Pinna LA, Coull J, Perich J, Valerio RM, Johns RB. Sequence analysis of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides. Determination of PTH-phosphotyrosine by capillary electrophoresis Chromatographia. 30: 691-695. DOI: 10.1007/BF02269745  1
1989 Beck S, O'Keeffe T, Coull JM, Koster H. Chemiluminescent detection of DNA: Application for DNA sequencing and hybridization Nucleic Acids Research. 17: 5115-5124. PMID 2762122 DOI: 10.1093/Nar/17.13.5115  1
1989 Daniels SB, Bernatowicz MS, Coull JM, Köster H. Membranes as solid supports for peptide synthesis Tetrahedron Letters. 30: 4345-4348. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)99356-0  1
1988 Coull JR. Fish farming in the Highlands and Islands: Boom industry of the 1980s Scottish Geographical Magazine. 104: 4-13. DOI: 10.1080/00369228818736722  1
1988 Coull J, Simmonds DG. Computer-assisted algebraic differential equation solution International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. 19: 551-559. DOI: 10.1080/0020739880190406  1
1987 Bischoff R, Coull JM, Regnier FE. Introduction of 5′-terminal functional groups into synthetic oligonucleotides for selective immobilization Analytical Biochemistry. 164: 336-344. PMID 3674381 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(87)90502-1  1
1987 Coull JM, Carlson DV, Weith HL. Synthesis and characterization of a carbamate-linked oligonucleoside Tetrahedron Letters. 28: 745-748. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(01)80978-3  1
1986 Toren PC, Betsch DF, Weith HL, Coull JM. Determination of impurities in nucleoside 3′-phosphoramidites by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry Analytical Biochemistry. 152: 291-294. PMID 3963365 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(86)90411-2  1
1986 Coull JR. The Scottish herring fishery 1800-1914: Development and intensification of a pattern of resource use Scottish Geographical Magazine. 102: 4-17. DOI: 10.1080/00369228618736643  1
1986 Coull JM, Weith HL, Bischoff R. A novel method for the introduction of an aliphatic primary amino group at the 5′ terminus of synthetic oligonucleotides Tetrahedron Letters. 27: 3991-3994. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)84892-3  1
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