Vladimir Litvak - Publications

Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, England, United Kingdom 
Deep Brain Stimulation, TMS, MEG

74 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2020 Friston KJ, Parr T, Zeidman P, Razi A, Flandin G, Daunizeau J, Hulme OJ, Billig AJ, Litvak V, Price CJ, Moran RJ, Costello A, Pillay D, Lambert C. Effective immunity and second waves: a dynamic causal modelling study. Wellcome Open Research. 5: 204. PMID 33088924 DOI: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16253.2  0.88
2020 Özkurt TE, Akram H, Zrinzo L, Limousin P, Foltynie T, Oswal A, Litvak V. Identification of nonlinear features in cortical and subcortical signals of Parkinson's Disease patients via a novel efficient measure. Neuroimage. 223: 117356. PMID 32916287 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117356  0.52
2020 Friston KJ, Parr T, Zeidman P, Razi A, Flandin G, Daunizeau J, Hulme OJ, Billig AJ, Litvak V, Moran RJ, Price CJ, Lambert C. Dynamic causal modelling of COVID-19. Wellcome Open Research. 5: 89. PMID 32832701 DOI: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15881.2  0.88
2020 Limanowski J, Litvak V, Friston K. Cortical beta oscillations reflect the contextual gating of visual action feedback. Neuroimage. 222: 117267. PMID 32818621 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117267  0.48
2020 Gratwicke J, Oswal A, Akram H, Jahanshahi M, Hariz M, Zrinzo L, Foltynie T, Litvak V. Resting state activity and connectivity of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and globus pallidus in Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia. Neuroimage. 117184. PMID 32711059 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117184  0.52
2020 Witon A, Shirazibehehsti A, Cooke J, Aviles A, Adapa R, Menon DK, Chennu S, Bekinschtein T, Lopez JD, Litvak V, Li L, Friston K, Bowman H. Sedation Modulates Frontotemporal Predictive Coding Circuits and the Double Surprise Acceleration Effect. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). PMID 32427284 DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhaa071  0.48
2020 Jafarian A, Litvak V, Cagnan H, Friston KJ, Zeidman P. Comparing dynamic causal models of neurovascular coupling with fMRI and EEG/MEG. Neuroimage. 116734. PMID 32179105 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116734  0.88
2020 Vivekananda U, Mellor S, Tierney TM, Holmes N, Boto E, Leggett J, Roberts G, Hill RM, Litvak V, Brookes MJ, Bowtell R, Barnes GR, Walker MC. Optically pumped magnetoencephalography in epilepsy. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. PMID 32112610 DOI: 10.1002/acn3.50995  0.32
2020 Wei H, Jafarian A, Zeidman P, Litvak V, Razi A, Hu D, Friston KJ. Bayesian fusion and multimodal DCM for EEG and fMRI. Neuroimage. 116595. PMID 32027965 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116595  0.88
2019 Jafarian A, Zeidman P, Litvak V, Friston K. Structure learning in coupled dynamical systems and dynamic causal modelling. Philosophical Transactions. Series a, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences. 377: 20190048. PMID 31656140 DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2019.0048  0.64
2019 Zeidman P, Jafarian A, Seghier ML, Litvak V, Cagnan H, Price CJ, Friston KJ. A guide to group effective connectivity analysis, part 2: Second level analysis with PEB. Neuroimage. PMID 31226492 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.06.032  0.88
2019 Henson RN, Abdulrahman H, Flandin G, Litvak V. Multimodal Integration of M/EEG and f/MRI Data in SPM12. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 13: 300. PMID 31068770 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00300  0.68
2018 van Wijk BCM, Cagnan H, Litvak V, Kühn AA, Friston KJ. Generic dynamic causal modelling: An illustrative application to Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. PMID 30130648 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.08.039  0.88
2018 Tierney TM, Holmes N, Meyer SS, Boto E, Roberts G, Leggett J, Buck S, Duque-Muñoz L, Litvak V, Bestmann S, Baldeweg T, Bowtell R, Brookes MJ, Barnes GR. Cognitive neuroscience using wearable magnetometer arrays: Non-invasive assessment of language function. Neuroimage. PMID 30016678 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.07.035  0.32
2018 Niso G, Gorgolewski KJ, Bock E, Brooks TL, Flandin G, Gramfort A, Henson RN, Jas M, Litvak V, T Moreau J, Oostenveld R, Schoffelen JM, Tadel F, Wexler J, Baillet S. MEG-BIDS, the brain imaging data structure extended to magnetoencephalography. Scientific Data. 5: 180110. PMID 29917016 DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2018.110  0.68
2017 van Wijk BCM, Neumann WJ, Schneider GH, Sander TH, Litvak V, Kühn AA. Low-beta cortico-pallidal coherence decreases during movement and correlates with overall reaction time. Neuroimage. PMID 28712991 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.07.024  0.52
2017 Jha A, Litvak V, Taulu S, Thevathasan W, Hyam JA, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Bogdanovic M, Zrinzo L, Green AL, Aziz TZ, Friston K, Brown P. Functional Connectivity of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus and Surrounding Region in Parkinson's Disease. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 27: 54-67. PMID 28316456 DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhw340  0.48
2016 Beudel M, Oswal A, Jha A, Foltynie T, Zrinzo L, Hariz M, Limousin P, Litvak V. Oscillatory Beta Power Correlates With Akinesia-Rigidity in the Parkinsonian Subthalamic Nucleus. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. PMID 27859589 DOI: 10.1002/mds.26860  0.52
2016 Pinotsis DA, Perry G, Litvak V, Singh KD, Friston KJ. Intersubject variability and induced gamma in the visual cortex: DCM with empirical Bayes and neural fields. Human Brain Mapping. PMID 27593199 DOI: 10.1002/hbm.23331  0.88
2016 Oswal A, Beudel M, Zrinzo L, Limousin P, Hariz M, Foltynie T, Litvak V, Brown P. Deep brain stimulation modulates synchrony within spatially and spectrally distinct resting state networks in Parkinson's disease. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. PMID 27017189 DOI: 10.1093/brain/aww048  0.88
2016 van Wijk BC, Beudel M, Jha A, Oswal A, Foltynie T, Hariz MI, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, Aziz TZ, Green AL, Brown P, Litvak V. Subthalamic nucleus phase-amplitude coupling correlates with motor impairment in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 127: 2010-9. PMID 26971483 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2016.01.015  0.88
2015 Litvak V, Garrido M, Zeidman P, Friston K. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 9: 670. PMID 26733846 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00670  0.88
2015 Oswal A, Jha A, Neal S, Reid A, Bradbury D, Aston P, Limousin P, Foltynie T, Zrinzo L, Brown P, Litvak V. Analysis of simultaneous MEG and intracranial LFP recordings during Deep Brain Stimulation: a protocol and experimental validation. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. PMID 26698227 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.11.029  0.88
2015 Friston K, Zeidman P, Litvak V. Empirical Bayes for DCM: A Group Inversion Scheme. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 9: 164. PMID 26640432 DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2015.00164  0.88
2015 Friston KJ, Litvak V, Oswal A, Razi A, Stephan KE, van Wijk BC, Ziegler G, Zeidman P. Bayesian model reduction and empirical Bayes for group (DCM) studies. Neuroimage. PMID 26569570 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.015  0.88
2015 Neumann WJ, Jha A, Bock A, Huebl J, Horn A, Schneider GH, Sander TH, Litvak V, Kühn AA. Cortico-pallidal oscillatory connectivity in patients with dystonia. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 138: 1894-906. PMID 25935723 DOI: 10.1093/brain/awv109  0.88
2015 Stenner MP, Litvak V, Rutledge RB, Zaehle T, Schmitt FC, Voges J, Heinze HJ, Dolan RJ. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection. Journal of Neurophysiology. 114: 29-39. PMID 25878159 DOI: 10.1152/jn.00988.2014  0.88
2015 Jha A, Nachev P, Barnes G, Husain M, Brown P, Litvak V. The Frontal Control of Stopping. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). PMID 25754518 DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhv027  0.88
2015 van Wijk BC, Jha A, Penny W, Litvak V. Parametric estimation of cross-frequency coupling. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 243: 94-102. PMID 25677405 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.01.032  0.88
2015 Bastos AM, Litvak V, Moran R, Bosman CA, Fries P, Friston KJ. A DCM study of spectral asymmetries in feedforward and feedback connections between visual areas V1 and V4 in the monkey. Neuroimage. 108: 460-75. PMID 25585017 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.081  0.88
2015 Zeller D, Litvak V, Friston KJ, Classen J. Sensory processing and the rubber hand illusion--an evoked potentials study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 27: 573-82. PMID 25170795 DOI: 10.1162/jocn_a_00705  0.88
2015 Friston KJ, Bastos AM, Pinotsis D, Litvak V. LFP and oscillations-what do they tell us? Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 31: 1-6. PMID 25079053 DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.05.004  0.88
2015 Butorina A, Prokofyev A, Nazarova M, Litvak V, Stroganova T. Corrigendum to "The mirror illusion induces high gamma oscillations in the absence of movement",[NeuroImage, (2014)] doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.024 Neuroimage. 107: 54. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.005  0.88
2014 Butorina A, Prokofyev A, Nazarova M, Litvak V, Stroganova T. The mirror illusion induces high gamma oscillations in the absence of movement. Neuroimage. 103: 181-91. PMID 25241908 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.024  0.88
2014 Oswal A, Litvak V, Brown P, Woolrich M, Barnes G. Optimising beamformer regions of interest analysis. Neuroimage. 102: 945-54. PMID 25134978 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.08.019  0.88
2014 Friston KJ, Bastos AM, Oswal A, van Wijk B, Richter C, Litvak V. Granger causality revisited. Neuroimage. 101: 796-808. PMID 25003817 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.062  0.88
2014 Fogelson N, Litvak V, Peled A, Fernandez-del-Olmo M, Friston K. The functional anatomy of schizophrenia: A dynamic causal modeling study of predictive coding. Schizophrenia Research. 158: 204-12. PMID 24998031 DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.06.011  0.88
2014 Pinotsis DA, Brunet N, Bastos A, Bosman CA, Litvak V, Fries P, Friston KJ. Contrast gain control and horizontal interactions in V1: a DCM study. Neuroimage. 92: 143-55. PMID 24495812 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.047  0.88
2014 López JD, Litvak V, Espinosa JJ, Friston K, Barnes GR. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM. Neuroimage. 84: 476-87. PMID 24041874 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.002  0.88
2013 Oswal A, Brown P, Litvak V. Synchronized neural oscillations and the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Current Opinion in Neurology. 26: 662-70. PMID 24150222 DOI: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000034  0.88
2013 Oswal A, Litvak V, Brücke C, Huebl J, Schneider GH, Kühn AA, Brown P. Cognitive factors modulate activity within the human subthalamic nucleus during voluntary movement in Parkinson's disease. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 33: 15815-26. PMID 24089489 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1790-13.2013  0.88
2013 Parkinson AL, Korzyukov O, Larson CR, Litvak V, Robin DA. Modulation of effective connectivity during vocalization with perturbed auditory feedback. Neuropsychologia. 51: 1471-80. PMID 23665378 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.05.002  0.88
2013 van Wijk BC, Litvak V, Friston KJ, Daffertshofer A. Nonlinear coupling between occipital and motor cortex during motor imagery: a dynamic causal modeling study. Neuroimage. 71: 104-13. PMID 23313570 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.12.076  0.88
2013 Oswal A, Brown P, Litvak V. Movement related dynamics of subthalmo-cortical alpha connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. 70: 132-42. PMID 23277109 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.12.041  0.88
2013 Pinotsis DA, Schwarzkopf DS, Litvak V, Rees G, Barnes G, Friston KJ. Dynamic causal modelling of lateral interactions in the visual cortex. Neuroimage. 66: 563-76. PMID 23128079 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.078  0.88
2013 Gross J, Baillet S, Barnes GR, Henson RN, Hillebrand A, Jensen O, Jerbi K, Litvak V, Maess B, Oostenveld R, Parkkonen L, Taylor JR, van Wassenhove V, Wibral M, Schoffelen JM. Good practice for conducting and reporting MEG research. Neuroimage. 65: 349-63. PMID 23046981 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.10.001  0.88
2013 Litvak V, Jha A, Flandin G, Friston K. Convolution models for induced electromagnetic responses. Neuroimage. 64: 388-98. PMID 22982359 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.014  0.88
2012 Rossiter HE, Eaves C, Davis E, Boudrias MH, Park CH, Farmer S, Barnes G, Litvak V, Ward NS. Changes in the location of cortico-muscular coherence following stroke. Neuroimage. Clinical. 2: 50-5. PMID 24179758 DOI: 10.1016/j.nicl.2012.11.002  0.88
2012 Litvak V, Eusebio A, Jha A, Oostenveld R, Barnes G, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, Hariz MI, Friston K, Brown P. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson's disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 10541-53. PMID 22855804 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0767-12.2012  0.88
2012 Oswal A, Litvak V, Sauleau P, Brown P. Beta reactivity, prospective facilitation of executive processing, and its dependence on dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 9909-16. PMID 22815506 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0275-12.2012  0.88
2012 Kaplan R, Doeller CF, Barnes GR, Litvak V, Düzel E, Bandettini PA, Burgess N. Movement-related theta rhythm in humans: coordinating self-directed hippocampal learning. Plos Biology. 10: e1001267. PMID 22389627 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001267  0.88
2012 Ridgway GR, Litvak V, Flandin G, Friston KJ, Penny WD. The problem of low variance voxels in statistical parametric mapping; a new hat avoids a 'haircut'. Neuroimage. 59: 2131-41. PMID 22037420 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.10.027  0.88
2012 Friston KJ, Bastos A, Litvak V, Stephan KE, Fries P, Moran RJ. DCM for complex-valued data: cross-spectra, coherence and phase-delays. Neuroimage. 59: 439-55. PMID 21820062 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.048  0.88
2012 Talmi D, Fuentemilla L, Litvak V, Duzel E, Dolan RJ. An MEG signature corresponding to an axiomatic model of reward prediction error. Neuroimage. 59: 635-45. PMID 21726648 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.051  0.88
2011 Henson RN, Wakeman DG, Litvak V, Friston KJ. A Parametric Empirical Bayesian Framework for the EEG/MEG Inverse Problem: Generative Models for Multi-Subject and Multi-Modal Integration. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 5: 76. PMID 21904527 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00076  0.88
2011 Moran RJ, Mallet N, Litvak V, Dolan RJ, Magill PJ, Friston KJ, Brown P. Alterations in brain connectivity underlying beta oscillations in Parkinsonism. Plos Computational Biology. 7: e1002124. PMID 21852943 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002124  0.88
2011 Boly M, Garrido MI, Gosseries O, Bruno MA, Boveroux P, Schnakers C, Massimini M, Litvak V, Laureys S, Friston K. Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state. Science (New York, N.Y.). 332: 858-62. PMID 21566197 DOI: 10.1126/science.1202043  0.88
2011 Litvak V, Mattout J, Kiebel S, Phillips C, Henson R, Kilner J, Barnes G, Oostenveld R, Daunizeau J, Flandin G, Penny W, Friston K. EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience. 2011: 852961. PMID 21437221 DOI: 10.1155/2011/852961  0.88
2011 Barnes GR, Litvak V, Brookes MJ, Friston KJ. Controlling false positive rates in mass-multivariate tests for electromagnetic responses. Neuroimage. 56: 1072-81. PMID 21396458 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.072  0.88
2011 Litvak V, Jha A, Eusebio A, Oostenveld R, Foltynie T, Limousin P, Zrinzo L, Hariz MI, Friston K, Brown P. Resting oscillatory cortico-subthalamic connectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Brain : a Journal of Neurology. 134: 359-74. PMID 21147836 DOI: 10.1093/brain/awq332  0.88
2011 Boly M, Garrido MI, Gosseries O, Bruno MA, Boveroux P, Schnakers C, Massimini M, Litvak V, Laureys S, Friston K. Response to comment on "preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state" Science. 334: 1203.e. DOI: 10.1126/science.1210240  0.88
2010 Litvak V, Eusebio A, Jha A, Oostenveld R, Barnes GR, Penny WD, Zrinzo L, Hariz MI, Limousin P, Friston KJ, Brown P. Optimized beamforming for simultaneous MEG and intracranial local field potential recordings in deep brain stimulation patients. Neuroimage. 50: 1578-88. PMID 20056156 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.115  0.88
2010 Levit-Binnun N, Litvak V, Pratt H, Moses E, Zaroor M, Peled A. Differences in TMS-evoked responses between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls can be observed without a dedicated EEG system. Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 121: 332-9. PMID 20006543 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.10.035  0.88
2009 Penny WD, Litvak V, Fuentemilla L, Duzel E, Friston K. Dynamic Causal Models for phase coupling. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 183: 19-30. PMID 19576931 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.06.029  0.88
2008 Gaynor LM, Kühn AA, Dileone M, Litvak V, Eusebio A, Pogosyan A, Androulidakis AG, Tisch S, Limousin P, Insola A, Mazzone P, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P. Suppression of beta oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus following cortical stimulation in humans. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 28: 1686-95. PMID 18657185 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06363.x  0.88
2008 Litvak V, Friston K. Electromagnetic source reconstruction for group studies. Neuroimage. 42: 1490-8. PMID 18639641 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.022  0.88
2008 Androulidakis AG, Mazzone P, Litvak V, Penny W, Dileone M, Gaynor LM, Tisch S, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P. Oscillatory activity in the pedunculopontine area of patients with Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology. 211: 59-66. PMID 18282571 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.01.002  0.88
2008 Androulidakis AG, Khan S, Litvak V, Pleydell-Pearce CW, Brown P, Gill SS. Local field potential recordings from the pedunculopontine nucleus in a Parkinsonian patient. Neuroreport. 19: 59-62. PMID 18281893 DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f2e2d1  0.88
2007 Androulidakis AG, Doyle LM, Yarrow K, Litvak V, Gilbertson TP, Brown P. Anticipatory changes in beta synchrony in the human corticospinal system and associated improvements in task performance. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 25: 3758-65. PMID 17610595 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05620.x  0.88
2007 Litvak V, Komssi S, Scherg M, Hoechstetter K, Classen J, Zaaroor M, Pratt H, Kahkonen S. Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. Neuroimage. 37: 56-70. PMID 17574872 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.015  0.88
2007 Litvak V, Zeller D, Oostenveld R, Maris E, Cohen A, Schramm A, Gentner R, Zaaroor M, Pratt H, Classen J. LTP-like changes induced by paired associative stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex in humans: source analysis and associated changes in behaviour. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 25: 2862-74. PMID 17561848 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05531.x  0.88
2007 Chen CC, Litvak V, Gilbertson T, Kühn A, Lu CS, Lee ST, Tsai CH, Tisch S, Limousin P, Hariz M, Brown P. Excessive synchronization of basal ganglia neurons at 20 Hz slows movement in Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology. 205: 214-21. PMID 17335810 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.01.027  0.88
2005 Claßen J, Stefan K, Wolters A, Wycislo M, Gentner R, Zeller D, Schramm A, Sandbrink F, Litvak V, Schmidt A, Weise D. TMS-induced plasticity: A window to understanding motor learning? | TMS-induzierte plastizität: Ein fenster zum verständnis des motorischen lernens? Klinische Neurophysiologie. 36: 178-185. DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-915323  0.88
2003 Litvak V, Sompolinsky H, Segev I, Abeles M. On the transmission of rate code in long feedforward networks with excitatory-inhibitory balance. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 23: 3006-15. PMID 12684488  0.88
Show low-probability matches.