cached image

Bruce Tempel - Publications

University of Washington, Seattle, Seattle, WA 
Genetics of disease

81 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2017 Minich RR, Li J, Tempel BL. Early growth response protein 1 regulates promoter activity of α-plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2, a major calcium pump in the brain and auditory system. Bmc Molecular Biology. 18: 14. PMID 28532435 DOI: 10.1186/s12867-017-0092-1  0.4
2016 Weatherstone JH, Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Pilati N, Wang Y, Forsythe ID, Rubel EW, Tempel BL. Maintenance of neuronal size gradient in MNTB requires sound-evoked activit. Journal of Neurophysiology. jn.00528.2016. PMID 27881722 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00528.2016  1
2015 Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Tempel BL. Decreased temporal precision of neuronal signaling as a candidate mechanism of auditory processing disorder. Hearing Research. PMID 26119177 DOI: 10.1016/J.Heares.2015.06.014  1
2015 Peguero B, Tempel BL. A Chromosome 17 Locus Engenders Frequency-Specific Non-Progressive Hearing Loss that Contributes to Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice. Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology : Jaro. 16: 459-71. PMID 25940139 DOI: 10.1007/S10162-015-0519-7  1
2015 Peguero B, Tempel BL. A Chromosome 17 Locus Engenders Frequency-Specific Non-Progressive Hearing Loss that Contributes to Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice Jaro - Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology. 16: 459-471. DOI: 10.1007/s10162-015-0519-7  1
2014 Street VA, Kujawa SG, Manichaikul A, Broman KW, Kallman JC, Shilling DJ, Iwata AJ, Robinson LC, Robbins CA, Li J, Liberman MC, Tempel BL. Resistance to noise-induced hearing loss in 129S6 and MOLF mice: identification of independent, overlapping, and interacting chromosomal regions. Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology : Jaro. 15: 721-38. PMID 24952082 DOI: 10.1007/S10162-014-0472-X  1
2014 Watson CJ, Lies SM, Minich RR, Tempel BL. Changes in cochlear PMCA2 expression correlate with the maturation of auditory sensitivity. Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology : Jaro. 15: 543-54. PMID 24799196 DOI: 10.1007/S10162-014-0454-Z  1
2014 Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Tempel BL. Decreased temporal precision of neuronal signaling as a candidate mechanism of auditory processing disorder Hearing Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.heares.2015.06.014  1
2013 Wang W, Kim HJ, Lv P, Tempel B, Yamoah EN. Association of the Kv1 family of K+ channels and their functional blueprint in the properties of auditory neurons as revealed by genetic and functional analyses. Journal of Neurophysiology. 110: 1751-64. PMID 23864368 DOI: 10.1152/jn.00290.2013  1
2013 Watson CJ, Tempel BL. A new Atp2b2 deafwaddler allele, dfw(i5), interacts strongly with Cdh23 and other auditory modifiers. Hearing Research. 304: 41-8. PMID 23792079 DOI: 10.1016/J.Heares.2013.06.003  1
2012 Robbins CA, Tempel BL. Kv1.1 and Kv1.2: similar channels, different seizure models. Epilepsia. 53: 134-41. PMID 22612818 DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03484.x  1
2011 Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Tozer AJ, Robinson SW, Tempel BL, Hennig MH, Forsythe ID. The sound of silence: ionic mechanisms encoding sound termination. Neuron. 71: 911-25. PMID 21903083 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuron.2011.06.028  1
2011 Fulton S, Thibault D, Mendez JA, Lahaie N, Tirotta E, Borrelli E, Bouvier M, Tempel BL, Trudeau LE. Contribution of Kv1.2 voltage-gated potassium channel to D2 autoreceptor regulation of axonal dopamine overflow. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286: 9360-72. PMID 21233214 DOI: 10.1074/Jbc.M110.153262  1
2011 Karcz A, Hennig MH, Robbins CA, Tempel BL, Rübsamen R, Kopp-Scheinpflug C. Low-voltage activated Kv1.1 subunits are crucial for the processing of sound source location in the lateral superior olive in mice. The Journal of Physiology. 589: 1143-57. PMID 21224222 DOI: 10.1113/Jphysiol.2010.203331  1
2010 Lentz JJ, Gordon WC, Farris HE, MacDonald GH, Cunningham DE, Robbins CA, Tempel BL, Bazan NG, Rubel EW, Oesterle EC, Keats BJ. Deafness and retinal degeneration in a novel USH1C knock-in mouse model. Developmental Neurobiology. 70: 253-67. PMID 20095043 DOI: 10.1002/Dneu.20771  1
2009 Wang Y, Cunningham DE, Tempel BL, Rubel EW. Compartment-specific regulation of plasma membrane calcium ATPase type 2 in the chick auditory brainstem. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 514: 624-40. PMID 19365819 DOI: 10.1002/cne.22045  1
2007 Tempel BL, Shilling DJ. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase and disease. Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. 45: 365-83. PMID 18193644  1
2007 Wenzel HJ, Vacher H, Clark E, Trimmer JS, Lee AL, Sapolsky RM, Tempel BL, Schwartzkroin PA. Structural consequences of Kcna1 gene deletion and transfer in the mouse hippocampus. Epilepsia. 48: 2023-46. PMID 17651419 DOI: 10.1111/J.1528-1167.2007.01189.X  1
2007 Brew HM, Gittelman JX, Silverstein RS, Hanks TD, Demas VP, Robinson LC, Robbins CA, McKee-Johnson J, Chiu SY, Messing A, Tempel BL. Seizures and reduced life span in mice lacking the potassium channel subunit Kv1.2, but hypoexcitability and enlarged Kv1 currents in auditory neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology. 98: 1501-25. PMID 17634333 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00640.2006  1
2007 McCullough BJ, Adams JC, Shilling DJ, Feeney MP, Sie KC, Tempel BL. 3p-- syndrome defines a hearing loss locus in 3p25.3. Hearing Research. 224: 51-60. PMID 17208398 DOI: 10.1016/J.Heares.2006.11.006  1
2006 Duncan JL, Yang H, Doan T, Silverstein RS, Murphy GJ, Nune G, Liu X, Copenhagen D, Tempel BL, Rieke F, Krizaj D. Scotopic visual signaling in the mouse retina is modulated by high-affinity plasma membrane calcium extrusion. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 26: 7201-11. PMID 16822977 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.5230-05.2006  1
2006 Silverstein RS, Tempel BL. Atp2b2, encoding plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase type 2, (PMCA2) exhibits tissue-specific first exon usage in hair cells, neurons, and mammary glands of mice. Neuroscience. 141: 245-57. PMID 16675132 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.03.036  1
2006 Gittelman JX, Tempel BL. Kv1.1-containing channels are critical for temporal precision during spike initiation. Journal of Neurophysiology. 96: 1203-14. PMID 16672305 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00092.2005  1
2005 Keogh BP, Cordes D, Stanberry L, Figler BD, Robbins CA, Tempel BL, Green CG, Emmi A, Maravilla KM, Schwartzkroin PA. BOLD-fMRI of PTZ-induced seizures in rats. Epilepsy Research. 66: 75-90. PMID 16144756 DOI: 10.1016/J.Eplepsyres.2005.07.008  1
2004 Wood JD, Muchinsky SJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Tempel BL. Low endolymph calcium concentrations in deafwaddler2J mice suggest that PMCA2 contributes to endolymph calcium maintenance. Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology : Jaro. 5: 99-110. PMID 15357414 DOI: 10.1007/s10162-003-4022-1  1
2004 Lu Y, Monsivais P, Tempel BL, Rubel EW. Activity-dependent regulation of the potassium channel subunits Kv1.1 and Kv3.1. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 470: 93-106. PMID 14755528 DOI: 10.1002/Cne.11037  1
2003 Rosowski JJ, Brinsko KM, Tempel BI, Kujawa SG. The aging of the middle ear in 129S6/SvEvTac and CBA/CaJ mice: measurements of umbo velocity, hearing function, and the incidence of pathology. Journal of the Association For Research in Otolaryngology : Jaro. 4: 371-83. PMID 14690055 DOI: 10.1007/S10162-002-3047-1  1
2003 Lopantsev V, Tempel BL, Schwartzkroin PA. Hyperexcitability of CA3 pyramidal cells in mice lacking the potassium channel subunit Kv1.1. Epilepsia. 44: 1506-12. PMID 14636320 DOI: 10.1111/J.0013-9580.2003.44602.X  1
2003 Kopp-Scheinpflug C, Fuchs K, Lippe WR, Tempel BL, Rübsamen R. Decreased temporal precision of auditory signaling in Kcna1-null mice: an electrophysiological study in vivo. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 23: 9199-207. PMID 14534254  1
2003 Jiang X, Zhang YH, Clark JD, Tempel BL, Nicol GD. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits the potassium current in sensory neurons from hyperalgesic Kv1.1 knockout mice. Neuroscience. 119: 65-72. PMID 12763069 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00073-3  1
2003 Brew HM, Hallows JL, Tempel BL. Hyperexcitability and reduced low threshold potassium currents in auditory neurons of mice lacking the channel subunit Kv1.1. The Journal of Physiology. 548: 1-20. PMID 12611922 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2002.035568  1
2003 Street VA, Bennett CL, Goldy JD, Shirk AJ, Kleopa KA, Tempel BL, Lipe HP, Scherer SS, Bird TD, Chance PF. Mutation of a putative protein degradation gene LITAF/SIMPLE in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1C. Neurology. 60: 22-6. PMID 12525712 DOI: 10.1212/Wnl.60.1.22  1
2002 Street VA, Goldy JD, Golden AS, Tempel BL, Bird TD, Chance PF. Mapping of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C to chromosome 16p identifies a novel locus for demyelinating neuropathies. American Journal of Human Genetics. 70: 244-50. PMID 11713717 DOI: 10.1086/337943  1
2001 Parkinson NJ, Olsson CL, Hallows JL, McKee-Johnson J, Keogh BP, Noben-Trauth K, Kujawa SG, Tempel BL. Mutant beta-spectrin 4 causes auditory and motor neuropathies in quivering mice. Nature Genetics. 29: 61-5. PMID 11528393 DOI: 10.1038/Ng710  1
2001 Frankel WN, Taylor L, Beyer B, Tempel BL, White HS. Electroconvulsive thresholds of inbred mouse strains. Genomics. 74: 306-12. PMID 11414758 DOI: 10.1006/Geno.2001.6564  1
2001 Zaritsky JJ, Redell JB, Tempel BL, Schwarz TL. The consequences of disrupting cardiac inwardly rectifying K(+) current (I(K1)) as revealed by the targeted deletion of the murine Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 genes. The Journal of Physiology. 533: 697-710. PMID 11410627 DOI: 10.1111/J.1469-7793.2001.T01-1-00697.X  1
2001 van Brederode JF, Rho JM, Cerne R, Tempel BL, Spain WJ. Evidence of altered inhibition in layer V pyramidal neurons from neocortex of Kcna1-null mice. Neuroscience. 103: 921-9. PMID 11301201 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(01)00041-0  1
2001 Konrad-Martin D, Norton SJ, Mascher KE, Tempel BL. Effects of PMCA2 mutation on DPOAE amplitudes and latencies in deafwaddler mice. Hearing Research. 151: 205-220. PMID 11124466 DOI: 10.1016/S0378-5955(00)00228-8  1
2000 Stafstrom CE, Tempel BL. Epilepsy genes: the link between molecular dysfunction and pathophysiology. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 6: 281-92. PMID 11107193 DOI: 10.1002/1098-2779(2000)6:4<281::AID-MRDD7>3.0.CO;2-9  1
2000 Grigg JJ, Brew HM, Tempel BL. Differential expression of voltage-gated potassium channel genes in auditory nuclei of the mouse brainstem. Hearing Research. 140: 77-90. PMID 10675636 DOI: 10.1016/S0378-5955(99)00187-2  1
1999 Rho JM, Szot P, Tempel BL, Schwartzkroin PA. Developmental seizure susceptibility of kv1.1 potassium channel knockout mice. Developmental Neuroscience. 21: 320-7. PMID 10575255 DOI: 10.1159/000017381  1
1999 Hopkins WF, Allen M, Tempel BL. Interactions of snake dendrotoxins with potassium channels. Methods in Enzymology. 294: 649-61. PMID 9916253 DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)94037-5  1
1998 Clark JD, Tempel BL. Hyperalgesia in mice lacking the Kv1.1 potassium channel gene. Neuroscience Letters. 251: 121-4. PMID 9718989 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3940(98)00516-3  1
1998 Redell JB, Tempel BL. Multiple promoter elements interact to control the transcription of the potassium channel gene, KCNJ2. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273: 22807-18. PMID 9712915 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.273.35.22807  1
1998 Street VA, McKee-Johnson JW, Fonseca RC, Tempel BL, Noben-Trauth K. Mutations in a plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase gene cause deafness in deafwaddler mice. Nature Genetics. 19: 390-4. PMID 9697703 DOI: 10.1038/1284  1
1998 Hallows JL, Tempel BL. Expression of Kv1.1, a Shaker-like potassium channel, is temporally regulated in embryonic neurons and glia. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 18: 5682-91. PMID 9671659  1
1998 Allen ML, Koh DS, Tempel BL. Cyclic AMP regulates potassium channel expression in C6 glioma by destabilizing Kv1.1 mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95: 7693-8. PMID 9636212 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.13.7693  1
1998 McKee-Johnson JW, Street VA, Erford SK, Robinson LC, Tempel BL. Physical and genetic maps of the deafwaddler region on distal mouse Chr 6. Genomics. 49: 371-7. PMID 9615221 DOI: 10.1006/geno.1998.5274  1
1998 Smart SL, Lopantsev V, Zhang CL, Robbins CA, Wang H, Chiu SY, Schwartzkroin PA, Messing A, Tempel BL. Deletion of the K(V)1.1 potassium channel causes epilepsy in mice. Neuron. 20: 809-19. PMID 9581771 DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81018-1  1
1997 Street VA, Tempel BL. Physical mapping of potassium channel gene clusters on mouse chromosomes three and six. Genomics. 44: 110-7. PMID 9286706 DOI: 10.1006/geno.1997.4799  1
1997 Smart SL, Bosma MM, Tempel BL. Identification of the delayed rectifier potassium channel, Kv1.6, in cultured astrocytes. Glia. 20: 127-34. PMID 9179597 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1136(199706)20:2<127::AID-GLIA4>3.0.CO;2-6  1
1997 Street VA, Bosma MM, Demas VP, Regan MR, Lin DD, Robinson LC, Agnew WS, Tempel BL. The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor gene is altered in the opisthotonos mouse. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 17: 635-45. PMID 8987786  1
1996 Street VA, Hopkins WF, Tempel BL. Genomic structure, sequence, and physiological expression of mKv 1.5, a mouse potassium channel gene. Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 12: 165-75. PMID 9302515  1
1995 Wang H, Allen ML, Grigg JJ, Noebels JL, Tempel BL. Hypomyelination alters K+ channel expression in mouse mutants shiverer and Trembler. Neuron. 15: 1337-47. PMID 8845157 DOI: 10.1016/0896-6273(95)90012-8  1
1995 Street VA, Robinson LC, Erford SK, Tempel BL. Molecular genetic analysis of distal mouse chromosome 6 defines gene order and positions of the deafwaddler and opisthotonos mutations. Genomics. 29: 123-30. PMID 8530061 DOI: 10.1006/geno.1995.1222  1
1995 Tempel BL, Hopkins WF. Potassium channels at nodes of Ranvier: a role in disease? Society of General Physiologists Series. 50: 41-52. PMID 7676323  1
1994 Hopkins WF, Demas V, Tempel BL. Both N- and C-terminal regions contribute to the assembly and functional expression of homo- and heteromultimeric voltage-gated K+ channels. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 14: 1385-93. PMID 8120633  1
1994 Wang H, Kunkel DD, Schwartzkroin PA, Tempel BL. Localization of Kv1.1 and Kv1.2, two K channel proteins, to synaptic terminals, somata, and dendrites in the mouse brain. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 14: 4588-99. PMID 8046438 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.14-08-04588.1994  1
1994 Lock LF, Gilbert DJ, Street VA, Migeon MB, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG, Tempel BL. Voltage-gated potassium channel genes are clustered in paralogous regions of the mouse genome. Genomics. 20: 354-62. PMID 8034307 DOI: 10.1006/Geno.1994.1188  1
1994 Hopkins WF, Allen ML, Houamed KM, Tempel BL. Properties of voltage-gated K+ currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes by mKv1.1, mKv1.2 and their heteromultimers as revealed by mutagenesis of the dendrotoxin-binding site in mKv1.1. PflüGers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. 428: 382-90. PMID 7816560 DOI: 10.1007/BF00724522  1
1993 Wang H, Kunkel DD, Martin TM, Schwartzkroin PA, Tempel BL. Heteromultimeric K+ channels in terminal and juxtaparanodal regions of neurons. Nature. 365: 75-9. PMID 8361541 DOI: 10.1038/365075A0  1
1993 Bosma MM, Allen ML, Martin TM, Tempel BL. PKA-dependent regulation of mKv1.1, a mouse Shaker-like potassium channel gene, when stably expressed in CHO cells. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 13: 5242-50. PMID 8254371  1
1992 Newland CF, Adelman JP, Tempel BL, Almers W. Repulsion between tetraethylammonium ions in cloned voltage-gated potassium channels. Neuron. 8: 975-82. PMID 1586488 DOI: 10.1016/0896-6273(92)90212-V  1
1992 Migeon MB, Street VA, Demas VP, Tempel BL. Cloning, sequence and chromosomal localization of MK6, a murine potassium channel gene. Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 9: 173-80; discussion 1. PMID 1285906  1
1991 McLachlan RI, Tempel BL, Miller MA, Bicknell JN, Bremner WJ, Dorsa DM. Androgen receptor gene expression in the rat central nervous system: Evidence for two mRNA transcripts. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. 2: 117-22. PMID 19912789 DOI: 10.1016/1044-7431(91)90003-7  1
1991 Rehm H, Tempel BL. Voltage-gated K+ channels of the mammalian brain. Faseb Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies For Experimental Biology. 5: 164-70. PMID 2004663  1
1991 Newitt RA, Houamed KM, Rehm H, Tempel BL. Potassium channels and epilepsy: evidence that the epileptogenic toxin, dendrotoxin, binds to potassium channel proteins. Epilepsy Research. Supplement. 4: 263-73. PMID 1815606  1
1990 Chandy KG, Williams CB, Spencer RH, Aguilar BA, Ghanshani S, Tempel BL, Gutman GA. A family of three mouse potassium channel genes with intronless coding regions. Science (New York, N.Y.). 247: 973-5. PMID 2305265 DOI: 10.1126/Science.2305265  1
1989 Rehm H, Pelzer S, Cochet C, Chambaz E, Tempel BL, Trautwein W, Pelzer D, Lazdunski M. Dendrotoxin-binding brain membrane protein displays a K+ channel activity that is stimulated by both cAMP-dependent and endogenous phosphorylations. Biochemistry. 28: 6455-60. PMID 2790006 DOI: 10.1021/Bi00441A044  1
1989 Rehm H, Newitt RA, Tempel BL. Immunological evidence for a relationship between the dendrotoxin-binding protein and the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila Shaker K+ channel. Febs Letters. 249: 224-8. PMID 2472291 DOI: 10.1016/0014-5793(89)80628-3  1
1989 Tempel B, Newitt RA, Rehm H, Satin LS, Cook DL, Almers W, Houamed KM. Molecular characterization of a voltage-dependent potassium channel Genes and Gene Products in the Development of Diabetes Mellitus: Proceedings of the 3rd Nordisk Insulin Symposium 'Genes Ane Gene Products in the Development of Diabetes Mellitus'. Ics866. 329-340.  1
1988 Papazian DM, Schwarz TL, Tempel BL, Timpe LC, Jan LY. Ion channels in Drosophila. Annual Review of Physiology. 50: 379-94. PMID 2454072 DOI: 10.1146/  1
1988 Tempel BL, Jan YN, Jan LY. Cloning of a probable potassium channel gene from mouse brain. Nature. 332: 837-9. PMID 2451788 DOI: 10.1038/332837a0  1
1988 Timpe LC, Schwarz TL, Tempel BL, Papazian DM, Jan YN, Jan LY. Expression of functional potassium channels from Shaker cDNA in Xenopus oocytes. Nature. 331: 143-5. PMID 2448636 DOI: 10.1038/331143a0  1
1988 Schwarz TL, Tempel BL, Papazian DM, Jan YN, Jan LY. Multiple potassium-channel components are produced by alternative splicing at the Shaker locus in Drosophila. Nature. 331: 137-42. PMID 2448635 DOI: 10.1038/331137a0  1
1987 Tempel BL, Papazian DM, Schwarz TL, Jan YN, Jan LY. Sequence of a probable potassium channel component encoded at Shaker locus of Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.). 237: 770-5. PMID 2441471 DOI: 10.1126/Science.2441471  1
1987 Papazian DM, Schwarz TL, Tempel BL, Jan YN, Jan LY. Cloning of genomic and complementary DNA from Shaker, a putative potassium channel gene from Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.). 237: 749-53. PMID 2441470 DOI: 10.1126/Science.2441470  1
1984 Tempel BL, Livingstone MS, Quinn WG. Mutations in the dopa decarboxylase gene affect learning in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81: 3577-81. PMID 6427773  1
1983 Tempel BL, Bonini N, Dawson DR, Quinn WG. Reward learning in normal and mutant Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 80: 1482-6. PMID 6572401 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.80.5.1482  1
1983 Aceves-Piña EO, Booker R, Duerr JS, Livingstone MS, Quinn WG, Smith RF, Sziber PP, Tempel BL, Tully TP. Learning and memory in Drosophila, studied with mutants. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia On Quantitative Biology. 48: 831-40. PMID 6426849  1
1983 Livingstone MS, Tempel BL. Genetic dissection of monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis in Drosophila. Nature. 303: 67-70. PMID 6133219 DOI: 10.1038/303067a0  1
Show low-probability matches.