Howard L. Fields - Publications

Affiliations: 
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 
 University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 
Area:
opioid regulation of motivated behaviors, synaptic and circuit mechanisms, pain, addiction

174 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2020 Alter BJ, Aung MS, Strigo IA, Fields HL. Onset hyperalgesia and offset analgesia: Transient increases or decreases of noxious thermal stimulus intensity robustly modulate subsequent perceived pain intensity. Plos One. 15: e0231124. PMID 33290407 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231124  0.603
2019 Waung MW, Margolis EB, Charbit AR, Fields HL. A Midbrain Circuit that Mediates Headache Aversiveness in Rats. Cell Reports. 28: 2739-2747.e4. PMID 31509737 DOI: 10.1016/J.Celrep.2019.08.009  0.801
2017 Margolis EB, Fujita W, Devi LA, Fields HL. Two delta opioid receptor subtypes are functional in single ventral tegmental area neurons, and can interact with the mu opioid receptor. Neuropharmacology. PMID 28645621 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuropharm.2017.06.019  0.733
2017 Schwartz N, Miller C, Fields HL. Cortico-Accumbens Regulation of Approach-Avoidance Behavior Is Modified by Experience and Chronic Pain. Cell Reports. 19: 1522-1531. PMID 28538173 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.04.073  0.526
2016 Margolis EB, Fields HL. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula. Plos One. 11: e0159097. PMID 27427945 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159097  0.69
2016 Richard JM, Ambroggi F, Janak PH, Fields HL. Ventral Pallidum Neurons Encode Incentive Value and Promote Cue-Elicited Instrumental Actions. Neuron. PMID 27238868 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuron.2016.04.037  0.809
2016 Richard JM, Fields HL. Mu-opioid receptor activation in the medial shell of nucleus accumbens promotes alcohol consumption, self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Neuropharmacology. PMID 27089981 DOI: 10.1016/J.Neuropharm.2016.04.010  0.588
2015 Harasawa I, Johansen JP, Fields HL, Porreca F, Meng ID. Alterations in the rostral ventromedial medulla after the selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Pain. PMID 26335909 DOI: 10.1097/J.Pain.0000000000000344  0.674
2015 Navratilova E, Xie JY, Meske D, Qu C, Morimura K, Okun A, Arakawa N, Ossipov M, Fields HL, Porreca F. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 35: 7264-71. PMID 25948274 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.3862-14.2015  0.325
2015 Fields HL, Margolis EB. Understanding opioid reward. Trends in Neurosciences. 38: 217-25. PMID 25637939 DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2015.01.002  0.69
2014 Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Fujita W, Fields HL. Direct bidirectional μ-opioid control of midbrain dopamine neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 34: 14707-16. PMID 25355223 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2144-14.2014  0.77
2014 Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Allen DC, Fields HL. Intra-VTA deltorphin, but not DPDPE, induces place preference in ethanol-drinking rats: distinct DOR-1 and DOR-2 mechanisms control ethanol consumption and reward. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 38: 195-203. PMID 24033469 DOI: 10.1111/Acer.12246  0.781
2013 Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry. Clinical and Translational Science. 6: 400-3. PMID 24127930 DOI: 10.1111/cts.12075  0.486
2013 Hjelmstad GO, Xia Y, Margolis EB, Fields HL. Opioid modulation of ventral pallidal afferents to ventral tegmental area neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 33: 6454-9. PMID 23575843 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0178-13.2013  0.769
2012 Navratilova E, Xie JY, Okun A, Qu C, Eyde N, Ci S, Ossipov MH, King T, Fields HL, Porreca F. Pain relief produces negative reinforcement through activation of mesolimbic reward-valuation circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109: 20709-13. PMID 23184995 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.1214605109  0.346
2012 Hnasko TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL, Edwards RH. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 15076-85. PMID 23100428 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.3128-12.2012  0.806
2012 Margolis EB, Toy B, Himmels P, Morales M, Fields HL. Identification of rat ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons. Plos One. 7: e42365. PMID 22860119 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0042365  0.741
2012 Kayser AS, Allen DC, Navarro-Cebrian A, Mitchell JM, Fields HL. Dopamine, corticostriatal connectivity, and intertemporal choice. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 9402-9. PMID 22764248 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.1180-12.2012  0.708
2012 Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Fields HL. Alcohol self-administration, anxiety, and cortisol levels predict changes in delta opioid receptor function in the ventral tegmental area. Behavioral Neuroscience. 126: 515-22. PMID 22708955 DOI: 10.1037/a0029027  0.774
2012 Mitchell JM, Teague CH, Kayser AS, Bartlett SE, Fields HL. Varenicline decreases alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers. Psychopharmacology. 223: 299-306. PMID 22547331 DOI: 10.1007/S00213-012-2717-X  0.483
2012 Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Janabi M, Marks SM, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Alcohol consumption induces endogenous opioid release in the human orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Science Translational Medicine. 4: 116ra6. PMID 22238334 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002902  0.517
2012 Ghazizadeh A, Ambroggi F, Odean N, Fields HL. Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 32: 726-37. PMID 22238108 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.3891-11.2012  0.801
2012 Kayser A, Allen D, Navarro-Cebrian A, Mitchell J, Fields H. Impulsivity and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibition: A Translational Study (SC01.001) Neurology. 78: SC01.001-SC01.001. DOI: 10.1212/Wnl.78.1_Meetingabstracts.Sc01.001  0.673
2011 De Felice M, Sanoja R, Wang R, Vera-Portocarrero L, Oyarzo J, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Dussor GO, Fields HL, Price TJ, Porreca F. Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain. Pain. 152: 2701-9. PMID 21745713 DOI: 10.1016/J.Pain.2011.06.008  0.303
2011 Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A novel opioid receptor-mediated enhancement of GABAA receptor function induced by stress in ventral tegmental area neurons. The Journal of Physiology. 589: 4229-42. PMID 21690191 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2011.209023  0.769
2011 Xia Y, Driscoll JR, Wilbrecht L, Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO. Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons target non-dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 31: 7811-6. PMID 21613494 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.1504-11.2011  0.796
2011 Altamirano LJ, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Interaction between family history of alcoholism and Locus of Control in the opioid regulation of impulsive responding under the influence of alcohol. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 35: 1905-14. PMID 21569055 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01535.x  0.656
2011 Ambroggi F, Ghazizadeh A, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Roles of nucleus accumbens core and shell in incentive-cue responding and behavioral inhibition. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 31: 6820-30. PMID 21543612 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.6491-10.2011  0.796
2010 Margolis EB, Coker AR, Driscoll JR, Lemaître AI, Fields HL. Reliability in the identification of midbrain dopamine neurons. Plos One. 5: e15222. PMID 21151605 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015222  0.801
2010 Ghazizadeh A, Fields HL, Ambroggi F. Isolating event-related neuronal responses by deconvolution. Journal of Neurophysiology. 104: 1790-802. PMID 20631219 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00389.2010  0.795
2010 Krause M, German PW, Taha SA, Fields HL. A pause in nucleus accumbens neuron firing is required to initiate and maintain feeding. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 30: 4746-56. PMID 20357125 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0197-10.2010  0.799
2010 Ghazizadeh A, Ambroggi F, Fields HL. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex shapes responses of nucleus accumbens shell neurons to suppress unreinforced actions F1000research. 1. DOI: 10.7490/F1000Research.698.1  0.799
2009 Taha SA, Katsuura Y, Noorvash D, Seroussi A, Fields HL. Convergent, not serial, striatal and pallidal circuits regulate opioid-induced food intake. Neuroscience. 161: 718-33. PMID 19336249 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.057  0.593
2009 Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron. 61: 786-800. PMID 19285474 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.02.001  0.802
2009 Boettiger CA, Kelley EA, Mitchell JM, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Now or Later? An fMRI study of the effects of endogenous opioid blockade on a decision-making network. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 93: 291-9. PMID 19258022 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.02.008  0.724
2009 Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. Naltrexone aversion and treatment efficacy are greatest in humans and rats that actively consume high levels of alcohol. Neurobiology of Disease. 33: 72-80. PMID 18955144 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.09.018  0.486
2009 Taha S, Katsuura Y, Fields H. Enkephalinergic signaling in the limbic forebrain modulates palatable food intake Appetite. 52: 860. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.04.188  0.552
2008 Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Mitchell JM. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 28: 12672-81. PMID 19036960 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4569-08.2008  0.769
2008 Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Ishikawa J, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 28: 8908-13. PMID 18768684 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1526-08.2008  0.769
2008 Ambroggi F, Ishikawa A, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons. Neuron. 59: 648-61. PMID 18760700 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.004  0.768
2008 Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Contributions of the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to incentive cue responding. Neuroscience. 155: 573-84. PMID 18640246 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.06.037  0.768
2008 Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 28: 5088-98. PMID 18463262 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0253-08.2008  0.768
2007 Boettiger CA, Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Robertson M, Joslyn G, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 27: 14383-91. PMID 18160646 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2551-07.2007  0.729
2007 Taha SA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Cue-evoked encoding of movement planning and execution in the rat nucleus accumbens. The Journal of Physiology. 584: 801-18. PMID 17761777 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.140236  0.772
2007 Woolley JD, Lee BS, Kim B, Fields HL. Opposing effects of intra-nucleus accumbens mu and kappa opioid agonists on sensory specific satiety. Neuroscience. 146: 1445-52. PMID 17445988 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.03.012  0.621
2007 Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Margolis EB, Nicola SM. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 30: 289-316. PMID 17376009 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.30.051606.094341  0.764
2007 Woolley JD, Lee BS, Taha SA, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioid signaling conditions short-term flavor preferences. Neuroscience. 146: 19-30. PMID 17320293 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.005  0.738
2007 Mitchell JM, Fields HL, White RL, Meadoff TM, Joslyn G, Rowbotham MC. The Asp40 mu-opioid receptor allele does not predict naltrexone treatment efficacy in heavy drinkers. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 27: 112-5. PMID 17224736 DOI: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e31802e68b0  0.489
2007 German PW, Fields HL. How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: a probabilistic model. Journal of Neurophysiology. 97: 2083-93. PMID 17093129 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00303.2006  0.771
2007 German PW, Fields HL. Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward. Journal of Neurophysiology. 97: 2094-106. PMID 17093128 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00304.2006  0.771
2007 Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 32: 439-49. PMID 17047667 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301226  0.729
2006 Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin is necessary for the expression of morphine conditioned place preference. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 85: 787-95. PMID 17196636 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2006.11.014  0.486
2006 Woolley JD, Lee BS, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioids regulate flavor-based preferences in food consumption. Neuroscience. 143: 309-17. PMID 17049180 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.06.067  0.629
2006 Margolis EB, Lock H, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons? The Journal of Physiology. 577: 907-24. PMID 16959856 DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2006.117069  0.77
2006 Taha SA, Norsted E, Lee LS, Lang PD, Lee BS, Woolley JD, Fields HL. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 24: 1220-6. PMID 16925586 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04987.x  0.733
2006 Margolis EB, Lock H, Chefer VI, Shippenberg TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103: 2938-42. PMID 16477003 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0511159103  0.804
2006 Borgland SL, Taha SA, Sarti F, Fields HL, Bonci A. Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuron. 49: 589-601. PMID 16476667 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.01.016  0.593
2006 Taha SA, Fields HL. Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 26: 217-22. PMID 16399690 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3227-05.2006  0.593
2005 Mitchell JM, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Impulsive responding in alcoholics. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 29: 2158-69. PMID 16385186 DOI: 10.1097/01.alc.0000191755.63639.4a  0.711
2005 Nicola SM, Taha SA, Kim SW, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens dopamine release is necessary and sufficient to promote the behavioral response to reward-predictive cues. Neuroscience. 135: 1025-33. PMID 16165291 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.06.088  0.772
2005 Mitchell JM, Liang MT, Fields HL. A single injection of the kappa opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine increases ethanol consumption in rats. Psychopharmacology. 182: 384-92. PMID 16001119 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-005-0067-7  0.486
2005 Taha SA, Fields HL. Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 25: 1193-202. PMID 15689556 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3975-04.2005  0.593
2005 Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology. 93: 3086-93. PMID 15615834 DOI: 10.1152/jn.00855.2004  0.77
2005 Meng ID, Johansen JP, Harasawa I, Fields HL. Kappa opioids inhibit physiologically identified medullary pain modulating neurons and reduce morphine antinociception. Journal of Neurophysiology. 93: 1138-44. PMID 15456805 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00320.2004  0.674
2004 Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Dissociation of the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding to reward-predictive cues and waiting for reward. Behavioural Brain Research. 154: 19-30. PMID 15302107 DOI: 10.1016/J.Bbr.2004.01.013  0.771
2004 Yun IA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 20: 249-63. PMID 15245497 DOI: 10.1111/J.1460-9568.2004.03476.X  0.803
2004 Kim JA, Pollak KA, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A single cocaine exposure enhances both opioid reward and aversion through a ventral tegmental area-dependent mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101: 5664-9. PMID 15064402 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0401373101  0.786
2004 Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 24: 2923-33. PMID 15044531 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.5282-03.2004  0.797
2004 Papanastassiou AM, Fields HL, Meng ID. Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Pain. 107: 267-75. PMID 14736589 DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2003.11.009  0.674
2004 Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. Journal of Neurophysiology. 91: 1866-82. PMID 14645378 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00658.2003  0.796
2004 Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task. Journal of Neurophysiology. 91: 1840-65. PMID 14645377 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.00657.2003  0.794
2003 Potrebic S, Ahn AH, Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 23: 10988-97. PMID 14645495 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.23-34-10988.2003  0.772
2003 Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Kappa-opioid agonists directly inhibit midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 23: 9981-6. PMID 14602811  0.77
2003 Yun IA, Fields HL. Basolateral amygdala lesions impair both cue- and cocaine-induced reinstatement in animals trained on a discriminative stimulus task. Neuroscience. 121: 747-57. PMID 14568033 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00531-1  0.783
2003 Bie B, Fields HL, Williams JT, Pan ZZ. Roles of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors in the nucleus raphe magnus in opioid analgesia and opioid abstinence-induced hyperalgesia. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 23: 7950-7. PMID 12944526  0.511
2003 Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens inhibits glutamate and GABA release through different mechanisms. Journal of Neurophysiology. 89: 2389-95. PMID 12740400 DOI: 10.1152/jn.01115.2002  0.773
2003 Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. κ-Opioid Agonists Directly Inhibit Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons The Journal of Neuroscience. 23: 9981-9986. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-31-09981.2003  0.77
2003 Bie B, Fields HL, Williams JT, Pan ZZ. Roles of α1- and α2-Adrenoceptors in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus in Opioid Analgesia and Opioid Abstinence-Induced Hyperalgesia The Journal of Neuroscience. 23: 7950-7957. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-21-07950.2003  0.56
2002 Baron R, Fields HL, Jänig W, Kitt C, Levine JD. National Institutes of Health Workshop: reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndromes--state-of-the-science. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 95: 1812-6. PMID 12456464 DOI: 10.1097/00000539-200212000-00064  0.422
2001 Johansen JP, Fields HL, Manning BH. The affective component of pain in rodents: direct evidence for a contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98: 8077-82. PMID 11416168 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.141218998  0.69
2001 Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioid receptor inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell. Journal of Neurophysiology. 85: 1153-8. PMID 11247984 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.2001.85.3.1153  0.773
2000 Hirakawa N, Tershner SA, Fields HL, Manning BH. Bi-directional changes in affective state elicited by manipulation of medullary pain-modulatory circuitry. Neuroscience. 100: 861-71. PMID 11036220 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00329-8  0.771
2000 Pan Z, Hirakawa N, Fields HL. A cellular mechanism for the bidirectional pain-modulating actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin. Neuron. 26: 515-22. PMID 10839369 DOI: 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81183-6  0.471
2000 Harasawa I, Fields HL, Meng ID. Delta opioid receptor mediated actions in the rostral ventromedial medulla on tail flick latency and nociceptive modulatory neurons. Pain. 85: 255-62. PMID 10692626 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00280-8  0.674
2000 Tershner SA, Mitchell JM, Fields HL. Brainstem pain modulating circuitry is sexually dimorphic with respect to mu and kappa opioid receptor function. Pain. 85: 153-9. PMID 10692614 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00257-2  0.773
2000 Mitchell JM, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. A locus and mechanism of action for associative morphine tolerance. Nature Neuroscience. 3: 47-53. PMID 10607394 DOI: 10.1038/71120  0.606
1999 Hirakawa N, Tershner SA, Fields HL. Highly delta selective antagonists in the RVM attenuate the antinociceptive effect of PAG DAMGO. Neuroreport. 10: 3125-9. PMID 10574547 DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199910190-00001  0.774
1999 Baron R, Levine JD, Fields HL. Causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy: does the sympathetic nervous system contribute to the generation of pain? Muscle & Nerve. 22: 678-95. PMID 10366221 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199906)22:6<678::AID-MUS4>3.0.CO;2-P  0.441
1999 Baron R, Wasner G, Borgstedt R, Hastedt E, Schulte H, Binder A, Kopper F, Rowbotham M, Levine JD, Fields HL. Effect of sympathetic activity on capsaicin-evoked pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilatation. Neurology. 52: 923-32. PMID 10102407 DOI: 10.1212/Wnl.52.5.923  0.441
1998 Meng ID, Manning BH, Martin WJ, Fields HL. An analgesia circuit activated by cannabinoids. Nature. 395: 381-3. PMID 9759727 DOI: 10.1038/26481  0.773
1998 Fields HL, Meng ID. Watching the pot boil. Nature Medicine. 4: 1008-9. PMID 9734389 DOI: 10.1038/1995  0.674
1998 Mitchell JM, Lowe D, Fields HL. The contribution of the rostral ventromedial medulla to the antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine in restrained and unrestrained rats. Neuroscience. 87: 123-33. PMID 9722146 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00119-5  0.419
1998 Gutstein HB, Mansour A, Watson SJ, Akil H, Fields HL. Mu and kappa opioid receptors in periaqueductal gray and rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroreport. 9: 1777-81. PMID 9665599 DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199806010-00019  0.303
1998 Robbins WR, Staats PS, Levine J, Fields HL, Allen RW, Campbell JN, Pappagallo M. Treatment of intractable pain with topical large-dose capsaicin: preliminary report. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 86: 579-83. PMID 9495419 DOI: 10.1097/00000539-199803000-00027  0.441
1998 Goadsby PJ, Fields HL. On the functional anatomy of migraine. Annals of Neurology. 43: 272. PMID 9485072 DOI: 10.1002/ana.410430221  0.403
1997 Skinner K, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin and enkephalin in brain stem pain modulating circuits. Neuroreport. 8: 2995-8. PMID 9331904 DOI: 10.1097/00001756-199709290-00001  0.618
1997 Pan ZZ, Tershner SA, Fields HL. Cellular mechanism for anti-analgesic action of agonists of the kappa-opioid receptor. Nature. 389: 382-5. PMID 9311779 DOI: 10.1038/38730  0.773
1997 Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI, Mason P. GABA-immunoreactive boutons contact identified OFF and ON cells in the nucleus raphe magnus. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 378: 196-204. PMID 9120060 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970210)378:2<196::AID-CNE4>3.0.CO;2-Z  0.733
1997 Meng XW, Budra B, Skinner K, Ohara PT, Fields HL. Noradrenergic input to nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 377: 381-91. PMID 8989653 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9861(19970120)377:3<381::AID-CNE6>3.0.CO;2-Z  0.445
1997 Wall PD, Ader R, Kirsch I, Price DD, Fields HL. Where are the causes of placebo analgesia? A behavioral experiential analysis Pain Forum. 6: 44-64.  0.429
1996 Roychowdhury SM, Fields HL. Endogenous opioids acting at a medullary mu-opioid receptor contribute to the behavioral antinociception produced by GABA antagonism in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuroscience. 74: 863-72. PMID 8884782 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(96)00180-7  0.327
1996 Pan ZZ, Fields HL. Endogenous opioid-mediated inhibition of putative pain-modulating neurons in rat rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 74: 855-62. PMID 8884781 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(96)00179-0  0.471
1996 Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Comments on Thurston and Randich. Pain. 64: 396-8. PMID 8740621 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(95)00209-X  0.704
1995 Potrebic SB, Mason P, Fields HL. The density and distribution of serotonergic appositions onto identified neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 15: 3273-83. PMID 7751910  0.768
1994 Heinricher MM, Morgan MM, Tortorici V, Fields HL. Disinhibition of off-cells and antinociception produced by an opioid action within the rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 63: 279-88. PMID 7898652 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(94)90022-1  0.798
1994 Morgan MM, Fields HL. Pronounced changes in the activity of nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla in response to prolonged thermal noxious stimuli. Journal of Neurophysiology. 72: 1161-70. PMID 7807201 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.1994.72.3.1161  0.651
1994 Morgan MM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Inhibition and facilitation of different nocifensor reflexes by spatially remote noxious stimuli. Journal of Neurophysiology. 72: 1152-60. PMID 7807200 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.1994.72.3.1152  0.795
1994 Potrebic SB, Fields HL, Mason P. Serotonin immunoreactivity is contained in one physiological cell class in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 14: 1655-65. PMID 7510333  0.768
1993 Levine JD, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Peptides and the primary afferent nociceptor. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 13: 2273-86. PMID 8501507 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.13-06-02273.1993  0.581
1993 Morgan MM, Fields HL. Activity of nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla associated with volume expansion-induced antinociception. Pain. 52: 1-9. PMID 8446430 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(93)90108-2  0.657
1992 Heinricher MM, Morgan MM, Fields HL. Direct and indirect actions of morphine on medullary neurons that modulate nociception. Neuroscience. 48: 533-43. PMID 1603332 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(92)90400-V  0.802
1992 Morgan MM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Circuitry linking opioid-sensitive nociceptive modulatory systems in periaqueductal gray and spinal cord with rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 47: 863-71. PMID 1579215 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(92)90036-2  0.795
1992 Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Von Miller K, Walton A, Fields HL. Treatment of inflammatory, neuropathic and sympathetically maintained pain in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. Pain. 50: 205-8. PMID 1408318 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(92)90163-6  0.564
1992 Mason P, Back SA, Fields HL. A confocal laser microscopic study of enkephalin-immunoreactive appositions onto physiologically identified neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 12: 4023-36. PMID 1403098 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.12-10-04023.1992  0.603
1991 Floeter MK, Fields HL. Evidence that inhibition of a nociceptive flexion reflex by stimulation in the rostroventromedial medulla in rats occurs at a premotoneuronal level. Brain Research. 538: 340-2. PMID 2012976 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(91)90452-2  0.591
1991 Heinricher MM, Haws CM, Fields HL. Evidence for GABA-mediated control of putative nociceptive modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla: iontophoresis of bicuculline eliminates the off-cell pause. Somatosensory & Motor Research. 8: 215-25. PMID 1767619 DOI: 10.3109/08990229109144745  0.752
1991 Fields HL, Heinricher MM, Mason P. Neurotransmitters in nociceptive modulatory circuits. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 14: 219-45. PMID 1674413 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ne.14.030191.001251  0.804
1990 Bederson JB, Fields HL, Barbaro NM. Hyperalgesia during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from morphine is associated with increased on-cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Somatosensory & Motor Research. 7: 185-203. PMID 2378192 DOI: 10.3109/08990229009144706  0.582
1990 Haws CM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists, but not antagonists, alter the tail-flick latency when microinjected into the rostral ventromedial medulla of the lightly anesthetized rat. Brain Research. 533: 192-5. PMID 1981167 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(90)91339-I  0.735
1990 Mason P, Floeter MK, Fields HL. Somatodendritic morphology of on- and off-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 301: 23-43. PMID 1706357 DOI: 10.1002/cne.903010104  0.72
1990 Mason P, Floeter M, Fields H. Somatodendritic morphology of physiologically identified neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla Pain. 41: S446. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(90)93008-L  0.72
1990 Skinner K, Mason P, Basbaum A, Fields H. Gaba immunoreactive synapses onto physiologically identified neurons in the cat rostral ventromedial medulla Pain. 41: S446. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(90)93007-K  0.733
1990 Back S, Mason P, Fields H. Enkephalin immunoreactive contacts onto physiologically identified on-cells in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla Pain. 41: S445. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(90)93006-J  0.603
1990 Heindcher M, Morgan M, Fields H. Circuitry uniking opiate-sensitive nociceptive modulatory systems in rostral ventromedial medulla, perlaoueductal gray and spinal cord Pain. 41: S442. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(90)93000-N  0.56
1989 Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Brainstem modulation of nociceptor-driven withdrawal reflexes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 563: 34-44. PMID 2672950 DOI: 10.1111/J.1749-6632.1989.Tb42188.X  0.732
1989 Heinricher MM, Barbaro NM, Fields HL. Putative nociceptive modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat: firing of on- and off-cells is related to nociceptive responsiveness. Somatosensory & Motor Research. 6: 427-39. PMID 2547275 DOI: 10.3109/08990228909144685  0.731
1989 Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Putative nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat display highly correlated firing patterns. Somatosensory & Motor Research. 6: 413-25. PMID 2547274 DOI: 10.3109/08990228909144684  0.751
1989 Mason P, Fields HL. Axonal trajectories and terminations of on- and off-cells in the cat lower brainstem. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 288: 185-207. PMID 2477414 DOI: 10.1002/cne.902880202  0.603
1988 Fields HL, Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM. Brain stem neuronal circuitry underlying the antinociceptive action of opiates. Progress in Brain Research. 77: 245-57. PMID 3064169 DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62792-2  0.745
1987 Heinricher MM, Cheng ZF, Fields HL. Evidence for two classes of nociceptive modulating neurons in the periaqueductal gray. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 7: 271-8. PMID 3806198 DOI: 10.1523/Jneurosci.07-01-00271.1987  0.761
1987 Bederson JB, Fields HL, Barbaro NM. Naloxone-precipitated hyperalgesia following a single morphine dose is correlated with increased on-cell activity in rostroventral medulla Pain. 30: S113. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(87)91298-X  0.55
1987 Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Reciprocal activity in on- and off-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat: Correlation with tail flick latency Pain. 30: S113. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(87)91297-8  0.733
1987 Heinricher MM, Haws CM, Fields HL. Opposing actions of norepinephrine and clonidine on single pain-modulating neurons in rostral ventromedial medulla Pain. 30: S28. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(87)91135-3  0.75
1986 Levy RM, Fields HL, Stryker MP, Heinricher MM. The effect of analgesic doses of morphine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in pain-related structures. Brain Research. 368: 170-3. PMID 3955357 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(86)91057-7  0.777
1986 Cheng ZF, Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Morphine microinjected into the periaqueductal gray has differential effects on 3 classes of medullary neurons. Brain Research. 375: 57-65. PMID 3719359 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(86)90958-3  0.761
1986 Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Putative pain modulating neurons in the rostral ventral medulla: reflex-related activity predicts effects of morphine. Brain Research. 366: 203-10. PMID 3697678 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(86)91296-5  0.757
1985 Barbaro NM, Hammond DL, Fields HL. Effects of intrathecally administered methysergide and yohimbine on microstimulation-produced antinociception in the rat. Brain Research. 343: 223-9. PMID 2996695 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(85)90738-3  0.311
1985 Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Anatomy and physiology of a nociceptive modulatory system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 308: 361-74. PMID 2858889 DOI: 10.1098/Rstb.1985.0037  0.724
1984 Vanegas H, Barbaro NM, Fields HL. Tail-flick related activity in medullospinal neurons. Brain Research. 321: 135-41. PMID 6498509 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(84)90689-9  0.332
1984 Vanegas H, Barbaro NM, Fields HL. Midbrain stimulation inhibits tail-flick only at currents sufficient to excite rostral medullary neurons. Brain Research. 321: 127-33. PMID 6498508 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(84)90688-7  0.358
1984 Fields HL, Levine JD. Pain--mechanics and management. The Western Journal of Medicine. 141: 347-57. PMID 6209862  0.36
1984 Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control systems: brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 7: 309-38. PMID 6143527 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ne.07.030184.001521  0.49
1984 Fields HL, Levine JD. Placebo analgesia -a role for endorphins? Trends in Neurosciences. 7: 271-273. DOI: 10.1016/S0166-2236(84)80193-9  0.441
1984 Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Differential effect of morphine on three classes of medullary neurons Pain. 18: S221. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(84)90461-5  0.754
1984 Vanegas H, Barbaro NM, Fields HL. Midbrain stimulation produces analgesia only at currents sufficient to activate rostral medullary neurons Pain. 18: S220. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(84)90460-3  0.362
1983 Fields HL, Levine JD. Letters to the editor Pain. 17: 105-106. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(83)90135-5  0.36
1982 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL. Naloxone fails to antagonize nitrous oxide analgesia for clinical pain. Pain. 13: 165-70. PMID 7122107 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(82)90026-4  0.36
1982 Grossman ML, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Afferent and efferent connections of the rat tail flick reflex (a model used to analyze pain control mechanisms). The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 206: 9-16. PMID 7096630 DOI: 10.1002/cne.902060103  0.49
1982 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Smith R, Fields HL. Post-operative pain: effect of extent of injury and attention. Brain Research. 234: 500-4. PMID 7059842 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(82)90894-0  0.441
1982 Levine JD, Lane SR, Gordon NC, Fields HL. A spinal opioid synapse mediates the interaction of spinal and brain stem sites in morphine analgesia. Brain Research. 236: 85-91. PMID 6279239 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(82)90036-1  0.46
1981 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Smith R, Fields HL. Analgesic responses to morphine and placebo in individuals with postoperative pain. Pain. 10: 379-89. PMID 7279424 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(81)90099-3  0.448
1981 Fields HL, Levine JD. Biology of placebo analgesia. The American Journal of Medicine. 70: 745-6. PMID 7211908 DOI: 10.1016/0002-9343(81)90525-8  0.441
1980 Levine JD, Murphy DT, Seidenwurm D, Cortez A, Fields HL. A study of the quantal (all-or-none) change in reflex latency produced by opiate analgesics. Brain Research. 201: 129-41. PMID 6251949 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(80)90780-5  0.441
1980 Barton C, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Dissociation of supraspinal and spinal actions of morphine: a quantitative evaluation. Brain Research. 188: 487-98. PMID 6245758 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(80)90047-5  0.49
1979 Basbaum AI, Fields HL. The origin of descending pathways in the dorsolateral funiculus of the spinal cord of the cat and rat: further studies on the anatomy of pain modulation. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 187: 513-31. PMID 489790 DOI: 10.1002/cne.901870304  0.424
1979 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Bornstein JC, Fields HL. Role of pain in placebo analgesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 76: 3528-31. PMID 291020 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.76.7.3528  0.441
1979 Behbehani MM, Fields HL. Evidence that an excitatory connection between the periaqueductal gray and nucleus raphe magnus mediates stimulation produced analgesia. Brain Research. 170: 85-93. PMID 223721 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(80)90037-8  0.343
1979 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL. Naloxone dose dependently produces analgesia and hyperalgesia in postoperative pain. Nature. 278: 740-1. PMID 219371 DOI: 10.1038/278740a0  0.441
1978 Basbaum AI, Clanton CH, Fields HL. Three bulbospinal pathways from the rostral medulla of the cat: an autoradiographic study of pain modulating systems. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 178: 209-24. PMID 627624 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(79)90059-9  0.424
1978 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Jones RT, Fields HL. The narcotic antagonist naloxone enhances clinical pain. Nature. 272: 826-7. PMID 347307 DOI: 10.1038/272826a0  0.441
1978 Fields HL, Anderson SD. Evidence that raphe-spinal neurons mediate opiate and midbrain stimulation-produced analgesias. Pain. 5: 333-49. PMID 216966 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(78)90002-7  0.367
1978 Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control mechanisms: review and hypothesis. Annals of Neurology. 4: 451-62. PMID 216303 DOI: 10.1002/ana.410040511  0.49
1978 Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Brainstem control of spinal pain-transmission neurons. Annual Review of Physiology. 40: 217-48. PMID 205165 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ph.40.030178.001245  0.424
1978 Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL. The mechanism of placebo analgesia. Lancet (London, England). 2: 654-7. PMID 80579  0.36
1977 Fields HL, Basbaum AI, Clanton CH, Anderson SD. Nucleus raphe magnus inhibition of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. Brain Research. 126: 441-53. PMID 861731 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(77)90596-0  0.424
1977 Anderson SD, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Response of medullary raphe neurons to peripheral stimulation and to systemic opiates. Brain Research. 123: 363-8. PMID 843930 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(79)90159-3  0.49
1977 Fields HL, Clanton CH, Anderson SD. Somatosensory properties of spinoreticular neurons in the cat. Brain Research. 120: 49-66. PMID 832119 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(77)90497-8  0.372
1976 Basbaum AI, Clanton CH, Fields HL. Opiate and stimulus-produced analgesia: functional anatomy of a medullospinal pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 73: 4685-8. PMID 1070018 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(77)90095-1  0.49
1976 Fields HL, Anderson SD, Clanton CH, Basbaum AI. Nucleus raphe magnus: a common mediator of opiate- and stimulus-produced analgesia. Transactions of the American Neurological Association. 101: 208-10. PMID 195380  0.424
1976 Levine JD, Gormley J, Fields HL. Observations on the analgesic effects of needle puncture (acupuncture). Pain. 2: 149-59. PMID 141019 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(76)90111-1  0.441
1975 Fields HL, Wagner GM, Anderson SD. Some properties of spinal neurons projecting to the medial brain-stem reticular formation. Experimental Neurology. 47: 118-34. PMID 1091491 DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(75)90241-1  0.339
1967 Fields HL, Evoy WH, Kennedy D. Reflex role played by efferent control of an invertebrate stretch receptor. Journal of Neurophysiology. 30: 859-74. PMID 6035694 DOI: 10.1152/Jn.1967.30.4.859  0.433
1966 Kennedy D, Evoy WH, Fields HL. The unit basis of some crustacean reflexes. Symposia of the Society For Experimental Biology. 20: 75-109. PMID 5958371  0.433
1965 Fields HL, Kennedy D. Functional role of muscle receptor organs in crayfish. Nature. 206: 1235-7. PMID 5879785 DOI: 10.1038/2061235a0  0.433
Show low-probability matches.