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Joyce Besheer, Ph.D. - Publications

Psychiatry University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 
Behavioral Neuroscience of Addiction

77 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2021 Boero G, Tyler RE, Todd CA, O'Buckley TK, Balan I, Besheer J, Morrow AL. (3α,5α)3-Hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) regulation of hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF): Sexual dimorphism and brain region specificity in Sprague Dawley rats. Neuropharmacology. 108463. PMID 33460689 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108463  0.84
2020 Ornelas LC, Tyler RE, Irukulapati P, Paladugu S, Besheer J. Increased alcohol self-administration following exposure to the predator odor TMT in active coping female rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 113068. PMID 33333108 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2020.113068  0.36
2020 Randall PA, Lovelock DF, VanVoorhies K, Agan VE, Kash TL, Besheer J. Low-dose alcohol: Interoceptive and molecular effects and the role of dentate gyrus in rats. Addiction Biology. e12965. PMID 33015936 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12965  0.92
2020 Makhijani VH, Irukulapati P, Van Voorhies K, Fortino B, Besheer J. Central amygdala mineralocorticoid receptors modulate alcohol self-administration. Neuropharmacology. 108337. PMID 33007359 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108337  0.92
2020 Makhijani VH, Franklin JP, Van Voorhies K, Fortino B, Besheer J. The synthetically produced predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline increases alcohol self-administration and alters basolateral amygdala response to alcohol in rats. Psychopharmacology. PMID 32978649 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-020-05659-w  0.92
2020 Tyler RE, Weinberg B, Lovelock D, Ornelas L, Besheer J. Exposure to the predator odor TMT induces early and late differential gene expression related to stress and excitatory synaptic function throughout the brain in male rats. Genes, Brain, and Behavior. PMID 32666635 DOI: 10.1111/gbb.12684  0.32
2020 LeCocq MR, Randall PA, Besheer J, Chaudhri N. Considering Drug-Associated Contexts in Substance Use Disorders and Treatment Development. Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society For Experimental Neurotherapeutics. PMID 31898285 DOI: 10.1007/s13311-019-00824-2  0.92
2019 Randall PA, McElligott ZA, Besheer J. Role of mPFC and nucleus accumbens circuitry in modulation of a nicotine plus alcohol compound drug state. Addiction Biology. e12782. PMID 31173443 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12782  0.92
2019 Randall PA, Fortino B, Huynh YW, Thompson BM, Larsen CE, Callen MP, Barrett ST, Murray JE, Bevins RA, Besheer J. Effects of nicotine conditioning history on alcohol and methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. PMID 30664897 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2019.01.005  1
2018 Randall PA, Vetreno RP, Makhijani VH, Crews FT, Besheer J. The Toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C) induces rapid and lasting changes in gene expression related to glutamatergic function and increases ethanol self-administration in rats. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. PMID 30403408 DOI: 10.1111/acer.13919  0.92
2018 Yu W, Hwa LS, Makhijani VH, Besheer J, Kash TL. Chronic inflammatory pain drives alcohol drinking in a sex-dependent manner for C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). PMID 30300665 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.10.002  0.84
2018 Schmidt KT, Makhijani VH, Boyt KM, Cogan ES, Pati D, Pina MM, Bravo IM, Locke JL, Jones SR, Besheer J, McElligott ZA. Stress-Induced Alterations of Norepinephrine Release in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis of Mice. Acs Chemical Neuroscience. PMID 30252438 DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00265  0.8
2018 Makhijani VH, Van Voorhies K, Besheer J. The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone reduces alcohol self-administration in female and male rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. PMID 30171933 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2018.07.011  0.92
2018 Jin C, Decker AM, Makhijani VH, Besheer J, Darcq E, Kieffer BL, Maitra R. Discovery of a Potent, Selective, and Brain-Penetrant Small-Molecule that Activates the Orphan Receptor GPR88 and Reduces Alcohol Intake. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. PMID 30011199 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00566  0.8
2018 Jaramillo AA, Van Voorhies K, Randall PA, Besheer J. Silencing the insular-striatal circuit decreases alcohol self-administration and increases sensitivity to alcohol. Behavioural Brain Research. PMID 29660441 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.007  0.92
2018 Bohnsack JP, Hughes BA, O'Buckley TK, Edokpolor K, Besheer J, Morrow AL. Histone deacetylases mediate GABAreceptor expression, physiology, and behavioral maladaptations in rat models of alcohol dependence. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. PMID 29520058 DOI: 10.1038/s41386-018-0034-8  0.84
2017 Jaramillo AA, Randall PA, Stewart S, Fortino B, Van Voorhies K, Besheer J. Functional role for cortical-striatal circuitry in modulating alcohol self-administration. Neuropharmacology. 130: 42-53. PMID 29183687 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.035  0.92
2017 Jaramillo AA, Agan VE, Makhijani VH, Pedroza S, McElligott ZA, Besheer J. Functional role for suppression of the insular-striatal circuit in modulating interoceptive effects of alcohol. Addiction Biology. PMID 28960802 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12551  0.92
2017 Randall PA, Stewart RT, Besheer J. Sex differences in alcohol self-administration and relapse-like behavior in Long-Evans rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. PMID 28347737 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2017.03.005  0.92
2016 Jaramillo AA, Randall PA, Frisbee S, Besheer J. Modulation of sensitivity to alcohol by cortical and thalamic brain regions. The European Journal of Neuroscience. PMID 27543844 DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13374  0.92
2016 Randall PA, Cannady R, Besheer J. The nicotine + alcohol interoceptive drug state: contribution of the components and effects of varenicline in rats. Psychopharmacology. PMID 27334469 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-016-4354-2  0.92
2016 Cannady R, Fisher KR, Graham C, Crayle J, Besheer J, Hodge CW. Potentiation of amygdala AMPA receptor activity selectively promotes escalated alcohol self-administration in a CaMKII-dependent manner. Addiction Biology. PMID 26742808 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12357  1
2015 Besheer J, Frisbee S, Randall PA, Jaramillo AA, Masciello M. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats. Neuropharmacology. 101: 216-224. PMID 26415538 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.09.027  1
2015 Jaramillo AA, Randall PA, Frisbee S, Fisher KR, Besheer J. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). 49: 525-32. PMID 26142564 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.03.008  0.92
2015 Randall PA, Jaramillo AA, Frisbee S, Besheer J. The role of varenicline on alcohol-primed self-administration and seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology. 232: 2443-54. PMID 25656746 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-3878-1  1
2015 Jaramillo AA, Randall PA, Frisbee S, Fisher KR, Besheer J. Activation of mGluR2/3 following stress hormone exposure restores sensitivity to alcohol in rats Alcohol. DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.03.008  1
2014 Bevins RA, Besheer J. Interoception and learning: import to understanding and treating diseases and psychopathologies. Acs Chemical Neuroscience. 5: 624-31. PMID 25010473 DOI: 10.1021/cn5001028  1
2014 Cook JB, Werner DF, Maldonado-Devincci AM, Leonard MN, Fisher KR, O'Buckley TK, Porcu P, McCown TJ, Besheer J, Hodge CW, Morrow AL. Overexpression of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage in the ventral tegmental area increases 3α,5α-THP and reduces long-term operant ethanol self-administration. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 34: 5824-34. PMID 24760842 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4733-13.2014  1
2014 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Jaramillo AA, Frisbee S, Cannady R. Stress hormone exposure reduces mGluR5 expression in the nucleus accumbens: functional implications for interoceptive sensitivity to alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 39: 2376-86. PMID 24713611 DOI: 10.1038/npp.2014.85  1
2013 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Durant B. Authors' response to Dr. Joseph Troisi's commentary on "Assessment of the interoceptive effects of alcohol in rats using short-term training procedures". Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). 47: 437-8. PMID 23871533 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2013.06.001  1
2013 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Lindsay TG, Cannady R. Transient increase in alcohol self-administration following a period of chronic exposure to corticosterone. Neuropharmacology. 72: 139-47. PMID 23643750 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.036  1
2013 Cannady R, Fisher KR, Durant B, Besheer J, Hodge CW. Enhanced AMPA receptor activity increases operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Addiction Biology. 18: 54-65. PMID 23126443 DOI: 10.1111/adb.12000  1
2012 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Durant B. Assessment of the interoceptive effects of alcohol in rats using short-term training procedures. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). 46: 747-55. PMID 22944614 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2012.08.003  1
2012 Spanos M, Besheer J, Hodge CW. Increased sensitivity to alcohol induced changes in ERK Map kinase phosphorylation and memory disruption in adolescent as compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Behavioural Brain Research. 230: 158-66. PMID 22348893 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.02.010  1
2012 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Cannady R, Grondin JJ, Hodge CW. Intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Behavioural Brain Research. 228: 398-405. PMID 22209853 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.12.023  1
2012 Besheer J, Fisher KR, Grondin JJ, Cannady R, Hodge CW. The effects of repeated corticosterone exposure on the interoceptive effects of alcohol in rats. Psychopharmacology. 220: 809-22. PMID 22016195 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2533-8  1
2011 Cannady R, Grondin JJ, Fisher KR, Hodge CW, Besheer J. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol via selective activity within the amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 36: 2328-38. PMID 21734651 DOI: 10.1038/npp.2011.121  1
2010 Besheer J, Lindsay TG, O'Buckley TK, Hodge CW, Morrow AL. Pregnenolone and ganaxolone reduce operant ethanol self-administration in alcohol-preferring p rats. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 34: 2044-52. PMID 20946297 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01300.x  1
2010 Besheer J, Grondin JJ, Cannady R, Sharko AC, Faccidomo S, Hodge CW. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activity in the nucleus accumbens is required for the maintenance of ethanol self-administration in a rat genetic model of high alcohol intake. Biological Psychiatry. 67: 812-22. PMID 19897175 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.016  1
2009 Arolfo MP, Overstreet DH, Yao L, Fan P, Lawrence AJ, Tao G, Keung WM, Vallee BL, Olive MF, Gass JT, Rubin E, Anni H, Hodge CW, Besheer J, Zablocki J, et al. Suppression of heavy drinking and alcohol seeking by a selective ALDH-2 inhibitor. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 33: 1935-44. PMID 19673742 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01031.x  1
2009 Besheer J, Grondin JJ, Salling MC, Spanos M, Stevenson RA, Hodge CW. Interoceptive effects of alcohol require mGlu5 receptor activity in the nucleus accumbens. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 29: 9582-91. PMID 19641121 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2366-09.2009  1
2009 Besheer J, Lepoutre V, Hodge CW. Preclinical evaluation of riluzole: assessments of ethanol self-administration and ethanol withdrawal symptoms. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 33: 1460-8. PMID 19426166 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.00976.x  1
2009 Faccidomo S, Besheer J, Stanford PC, Hodge CW. Increased operant responding for ethanol in male C57BL/6J mice: specific regulation by the ERK1/2, but not JNK, MAP kinase pathway. Psychopharmacology. 204: 135-47. PMID 19125235 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-008-1444-9  1
2009 Stevenson JR, Schroeder JP, Nixon K, Besheer J, Crews FT, Hodge CW. Abstinence following alcohol drinking produces depression-like behavior and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 34: 1209-22. PMID 18563059 DOI: 10.1038/npp.2008.90  1
2008 Besheer J, Schroeder JP, Stevenson RA, Hodge CW. Ethanol-induced alterations of c-Fos immunoreactivity in specific limbic brain regions following ethanol discrimination training. Brain Research. 1232: 124-31. PMID 18692030 DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.061  1
2008 Schroeder JP, Spanos M, Stevenson JR, Besheer J, Salling M, Hodge CW. Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in specific limbic brain regions: blockade by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP. Neuropharmacology. 55: 546-54. PMID 18619984 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.06.057  1
2008 Besheer J, Faccidomo S, Grondin JJ, Hodge CW. Effects of mGlu1-receptor blockade on ethanol self-administration in inbred alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.). 42: 13-20. PMID 18164577 DOI: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2007.11.001  1
2008 Besheer J, Faccidomo S, Grondin JJ, Hodge CW. Regulation of motivation to self-administer ethanol by mGluR5 in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 32: 209-21. PMID 18162077 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00570.x  1
2008 Stevenson RA, Besheer J, Hodge CW. Comparison of ethanol locomotor sensitization in adolescent and adult DBA/2J mice. Psychopharmacology. 197: 361-70. PMID 18157521 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-007-1038-y  1
2007 Wilkie MB, Besheer J, Kelley SP, Kumar S, O'Buckley TK, Morrow AL, Hodge CW. Acute ethanol administration rapidly increases phosphorylation of conventional protein kinase C in specific mammalian brain regions in vivo. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 31: 1259-67. PMID 17511744 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00423.x  1
2006 Bevins RA, Besheer J. Object recognition in rats and mice: a one-trial non-matching-to-sample learning task to study 'recognition memory'. Nature Protocols. 1: 1306-11. PMID 17406415 DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2006.205  1
2006 Besheer J, Stevenson RA, Hodge CW. mGlu5 receptors are involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of self-administered ethanol in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 551: 71-5. PMID 17026991 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.08.071  1
2006 Parnell SE, Dehart DB, Wills TA, Chen SY, Hodge CW, Besheer J, Waage-Baudet HG, Charness ME, Sulik KK. Maternal oral intake mouse model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: ocular defects as a measure of effect. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 30: 1791-8. PMID 17010146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00212.x  1
2006 Besheer J, Lepoutre V, Mole B, Hodge CW. GABAA receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking requires PKCepsilon. Synapse (New York, N.Y.). 60: 411-9. PMID 16881070 DOI: 10.1002/syn.20314  1
2006 Hodge CW, Grant KA, Becker HC, Besheer J, Crissman AM, Platt DM, Shannon EE, Shelton KL. Understanding how the brain perceives alcohol: neurobiological basis of ethanol discrimination. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 30: 203-13. PMID 16441269 DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00024.x  1
2006 Hodge CW, Miles MF, Sharko AC, Stevenson RA, Hillmann JR, Lepoutre V, Besheer J, Schroeder JP. The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP selectively inhibits the onset and maintenance of ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology. 183: 429-38. PMID 16292590 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-005-0217-y  1
2005 Bevins RA, Besheer J. Novelty reward as a measure of anhedonia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 29: 707-14. PMID 15876456 DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.013  1
2005 Bevins RA, Eurek S, Besheer J. Timing of conditioned responding in a nicotine locomotor conditioning preparation: manipulations of the temporal arrangement between context cues and drug administration. Behavioural Brain Research. 159: 135-43. PMID 15795007 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2004.10.012  1
2005 Besheer J, Hodge CW. Pharmacological and anatomical evidence for an interaction between mGluR5- and GABA(A) alpha1-containing receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 30: 747-57. PMID 15549054 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300616  1
2004 Hodge CW, Kelley SP, Bratt AM, Iller K, Schroeder JP, Besheer J. 5-HT(3A) receptor subunit is required for 5-HT3 antagonist-induced reductions in alcohol drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 29: 1807-13. PMID 15162158 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300498  1
2004 Besheer J, Lepoutre V, Hodge CW. GABA(B) receptor agonists reduce operant ethanol self-administration and enhance ethanol sedation in C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology. 174: 358-66. PMID 14985930 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-003-1769-3  1
2004 Besheer J, Palmatier MI, Metschke DM, Bevins RA. Nicotine as a signal for the presence or absence of sucrose reward: a Pavlovian drug appetitive conditioning preparation in rats. Psychopharmacology. 172: 108-17. PMID 14530902 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-003-1621-9  1
2003 Churchill JD, Fang PC, Voss SE, Besheer J, Herron AL, Garraghty PE. Some antiepileptic compounds impair learning by rats in a Morris water maze. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science : the Official Journal of the Pavlovian Society. 38: 91-103. PMID 14527179  1
2003 Besheer J, Bevins RA. Impact of nicotine withdrawal on novelty reward and related behaviors. Behavioral Neuroscience. 117: 327-40. PMID 12708529 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.117.2.327  1
2003 Besheer J, Cox AA, Hodge CW. Coregulation of ethanol discrimination by the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 27: 450-6. PMID 12658110 DOI: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000057036.64169.C1  1
2002 Bevins RA, Besheer J, Palmatier MI, Jensen HC, Pickett KS, Eurek S. Novel-object place conditioning: behavioral and dopaminergic processes in expression of novelty reward. Behavioural Brain Research. 129: 41-50. PMID 11809493 DOI: 10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00326-6  1
2001 Besheer J, Short KR, Bevins RA. Dopaminergic and cholinergic antagonism in a novel-object detection task with rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 126: 211-7. PMID 11704266 DOI: 10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00245-5  1
2001 Banks MK, Besheer J, Szypczak J, Goodpaster LL, Phipps EJ, Garraghty PE. The effects of carbamazepine on an appetitive-to-aversive transfer task: comparison to untreated and phenytoin. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 25: 551-72. PMID 11370997 DOI: 10.1016/S0278-5846(00)00175-5  1
2001 Bevins RA, Besheer J, Pickett KS. Nicotine-conditioned locomotor activity in rats: dopaminergic and GABAergic influences on conditioned expression. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 68: 135-45. PMID 11274718 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00451-2  1
2001 Bevins RA, Besheer J. Individual differences in rat locomotor activity are diminished by nicotine through stimulation of central nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Physiology & Behavior. 72: 237-44. PMID 11240002 DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9384(00)00413-3  1
2000 Besheer J, Bevins RA. Nicotine enhances acquisition of a T-maze visual discrimination: assessment of individual differences. Behavioural Pharmacology. 11: 613-20. PMID 11198132  1
2000 Besheer J, Bevins RA. The role of environmental familiarization in novel-object preference. Behavioural Processes. 50: 19-29. PMID 10925033 DOI: 10.1016/S0376-6357(00)00090-5  1
1999 Besheer J, Jensen HC, Bevins RA. Dopamine antagonism in a novel-object recognition and a novel-object place conditioning preparation with rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 103: 35-44. PMID 10475162 DOI: 10.1016/S0166-4328(99)00021-2  1
1999 Banks MK, Mohr NL, Besheer J, Steinmetz JE, Garraghty PE. The effects of phenytoin on instrumental appetitive-to-aversive transfer in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 63: 465-72. PMID 10418789 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00019-2  1
1999 Bevins RA, Jensen HC, Hinze TS, Besheer J. Taste quality and extinction of a conditioned taste aversion in rats Animal Learning and Behavior. 27: 358-366.  1
1998 Churchill JD, Muja N, Myers WA, Besheer J, Garraghty PE. Somatotopic consolidation: a third phase of reorganization after peripheral nerve injury in adult squirrel monkeys. Experimental Brain Research. 118: 189-96. PMID 9547087 DOI: 10.1007/s002210050271  1
1997 Garraghty PE, Besheer J, Salinger WL. Cell size in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats reared with esotropia and sagittal transection of the optic chiasm. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 100: 127-9. PMID 9174255 DOI: 10.1016/S0165-3806(97)00024-2  1
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