Robert Schwarcz - Publications

Affiliations: 
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States 
Area:
Excitotoxicity, Neuroprotection, Astrocyte-neuron Interactions, Kynurenines

233 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2019 Notarangelo FM, Beggiato S, Schwarcz R. Assessment of Prenatal Kynurenine Metabolism Using Tissue Slices: Focus on the Neosynthesis of Kynurenic Acid in Mice. Developmental Neuroscience. 1-10. PMID 31117076 DOI: 10.1159/000499736  0.72
2018 Beggiato S, Notarangelo FM, Sathyasaikumar KV, Giorgini F, Schwarcz R. Maternal genotype determines kynurenic acid levels in the fetal brain: Implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 269881118805492. PMID 30354938 DOI: 10.1177/0269881118805492  0.72
2018 Pocivavsek A, Elmer GI, Schwarcz R. Inhibition of Kynurenine Aminotransferase II Attenuates Hippocampus-dependent Memory Deficit in Adult Rats Treated Prenatally with Kynurenine. Hippocampus. PMID 30311334 DOI: 10.1002/hipo.23040  0.72
2018 Clark SM, Notarangelo FM, Li X, Chen S, Schwarcz R, Tonelli LH. Maternal immune activation in rats blunts brain cytokine and kynurenine pathway responses to a second immune challenge in early adulthood. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. PMID 30267854 DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.09.011  0.72
2018 Notarangelo FM, Pocivavsek A, Schwarcz R. Exercise Your Kynurenines to Fight Depression. Trends in Neurosciences. 41: 491-493. PMID 30053952 DOI: 10.1016/j.tins.2018.05.010  0.72
2018 Chiappelli J, Rowland LM, Notarangelo FM, Wijtenburg SA, Thomas MAR, Pocivavsek A, Jones A, Wisner K, Kochunov P, Schwarcz R, Hong LE. Salivary kynurenic acid response to psychological stress: inverse relationship to cortical glutamate in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. PMID 29728648 DOI: 10.1038/s41386-018-0072-2  0.72
2018 Chiappelli J, Notarangelo FM, Pocivavsek A, Thomas MAR, Rowland LM, Schwarcz R, Hong LE. Influence of plasma cytokines on kynurenine and kynurenic acid in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. PMID 29520060 DOI: 10.1038/s41386-018-0038-4  0.72
2017 Hahn B, Reneski CH, Pocivavsek A, Schwarcz R. Prenatal kynurenine treatment in rats causes schizophrenia-like broad monitoring deficits in adulthood. Psychopharmacology. PMID 29128872 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4780-9  0.72
2017 Goeden N, Notarangelo FM, Pocivavsek A, Beggiato S, Bonnin A, Schwarcz R. Prenatal Dynamics of Kynurenine Pathway Metabolism in Mice: Focus on Kynurenic Acid. Developmental Neuroscience. PMID 29080891 DOI: 10.1159/000481168  0.72
2017 Flores-Barrera E, Thomases DR, Cass DK, Bhandari A, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP, Tseng KY. Preferential Disruption of prefrontal GABAergic function by nanomolar concentrations of the α7nACh negative modulator kynurenic acid. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. PMID 28729445 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0932-17.2017  0.44
2017 Notarangelo FM, Schwarcz R. Restraint Stress during Pregnancy Rapidly Raises Kynurenic Acid Levels in Mouse Placenta and Fetal Brain. Developmental Neuroscience. PMID 28214871 DOI: 10.1159/000455228  0.72
2016 Erhardt S, Pocivavsek A, Repici M, Liu XC, Imbeault S, Maddison DC, Thomas MA, Smalley JL, Larsson MK, Muchowski PJ, Giorgini F, Schwarcz R. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders. Biological Psychiatry. PMID 28187857 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.12.011  0.72
2016 Pershing ML, Phenis D, Valentini V, Pocivavsek A, Lindquist DH, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Prenatal kynurenine exposure in rats: age-dependent changes in NMDA receptor expression and conditioned fear responding. Psychopharmacology. PMID 27527585 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-016-4404-9  0.72
2016 Larkin PB, Sathyasaikumar KV, Notarangelo FM, Funakoshi H, Nakamura T, Schwarcz R, Muchowski PJ. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 make separate, tissue-specific contributions to basal and inflammation-induced kynurenine pathway metabolism in mice. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. PMID 27392942 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.07.002  0.72
2016 Breda C, Sathyasaikumar KV, Sograte Idrissi S, Notarangelo FM, Estranero JG, Moore GG, Green EW, Kyriacou CP, Schwarcz R, Giorgini F. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition ameliorates neurodegeneration by modulation of kynurenine pathway metabolites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID 27114543 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1604453113  0.44
2016 Clark SM, Pocivavsek A, Nicholson JD, Notarangelo FM, Langenberg P, McMahon RP, Kleinman JE, Hyde TM, Stiller J, Postolache TT, Schwarcz R, Tonelli LH. Reduced kynurenine pathway metabolism and cytokine expression in the prefrontal cortex of depressed individuals. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience : Jpn. 41: 150226. PMID 27070351 DOI: 10.1503/jpn.150226  0.72
2015 Notarangelo FM, Wang XD, Horning KJ, Schwarcz R. Role of D-amino acid oxidase in the production of kynurenine pathway metabolites from D-tryptophan in mice. Journal of Neurochemistry. PMID 26661897 DOI: 10.1111/jnc.13455  0.44
2015 Zanos P, Piantadosi SC, Wu HQ, Pribut HJ, Dell MJ, Can A, Snodgrass HR, Zarate CA, Schwarcz R, Gould TD. The Prodrug 4-Chlorokynurenine Causes Ketamine-Like Antidepressant Effects, but Not Side Effects, by NMDA/GlycineB-Site Inhibition. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 355: 76-85. PMID 26265321 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.115.225664  0.44
2015 Blanco Ayala T, Lugo Huitrón R, Carmona Aparicio L, Ramírez Ortega D, González Esquivel D, Pedraza Chaverrí J, Pérez de la Cruz G, Ríos C, Schwarcz R, Pérez de la Cruz V. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 9: 178. PMID 26041992 DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00178  0.44
2015 Drewes JL, Meulendyke KA, Liao Z, Witwer KW, Gama L, Ubaida-Mohien C, Li M, Notarangelo FM, Tarwater PM, Schwarcz R, Graham DR, Zink MC. Quinolinic acid/tryptophan ratios predict neurological disease in SIV-infected macaques and remain elevated in the brain under cART. Journal of Neurovirology. PMID 25776527 DOI: 10.1007/s13365-015-0334-2  0.44
2015 Pershing ML, Bortz DM, Pocivavsek A, Fredericks PJ, Jørgensen CV, Vunck SA, Leuner B, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Elevated levels of kynurenic acid during gestation produce neurochemical, morphological, and cognitive deficits in adulthood: implications for schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology. 90: 33-41. PMID 25446576 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.10.017  0.44
2014 Chiappelli J, Pocivavsek A, Nugent KL, Notarangelo FM, Kochunov P, Rowland LM, Schwarcz R, Hong LE. Stress-induced increase in kynurenic acid as a potential biomarker for patients with schizophrenia and distress intolerance. Jama Psychiatry. 71: 761-8. PMID 24806441 DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.243  0.44
2014 Beggiato S, Tanganelli S, Fuxe K, Antonelli T, Schwarcz R, Ferraro L. Endogenous kynurenic acid regulates extracellular GABA levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Neuropharmacology. 82: 11-8. PMID 24607890 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.02.019  0.44
2014 Pocivavsek A, Thomas MA, Elmer GI, Bruno JP, Schwarcz R. Continuous kynurenine administration during the prenatal period, but not during adolescence, causes learning and memory deficits in adult rats. Psychopharmacology. 231: 2799-809. PMID 24590052 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3452-2  0.44
2014 Wu HQ, Okuyama M, Kajii Y, Pocivavsek A, Bruno JP, Schwarcz R. Targeting kynurenine aminotransferase II in psychiatric diseases: promising effects of an orally active enzyme inhibitor. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 40: S152-8. PMID 24562494 DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbt157  0.44
2014 Notarangelo FM, Wilson EH, Horning KJ, Thomas MA, Harris TH, Fang Q, Hunter CA, Schwarcz R. Evaluation of kynurenine pathway metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice: implications for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 152: 261-7. PMID 24345671 DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.11.011  0.44
2013 Vallerini GP, Amori L, Beato C, Tararina M, Wang XD, Schwarcz R, Costantino G. 2-Aminonicotinic acid 1-oxides are chemically stable inhibitors of quinolinic acid synthesis in the mammalian brain: a step toward new antiexcitotoxic agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 56: 9482-95. PMID 24274468 DOI: 10.1021/jm401249c  0.44
2013 Giorgini F, Huang SY, Sathyasaikumar KV, Notarangelo FM, Thomas MA, Tararina M, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Muchowski PJ. Targeted deletion of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase in mice: a new tool for studying kynurenine pathway metabolism in periphery and brain. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288: 36554-66. PMID 24189070 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.503813  0.44
2013 Wang XD, Horning KJ, Notarangelo FM, Schwarcz R. A method for the determination of D-kynurenine in biological tissues. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 405: 9747-54. PMID 24158577 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-013-7399-7  0.44
2013 Justinova Z, Mascia P, Wu HQ, Secci ME, Redhi GH, Panlilio LV, Scherma M, Barnes C, Parashos A, Zara T, Fratta W, Solinas M, Pistis M, Bergman J, Kangas BD, ... ... Schwarcz R, et al. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid. Nature Neuroscience. 16: 1652-61. PMID 24121737 DOI: 10.1038/nn.3540  0.44
2013 Beggiato S, Antonelli T, Tomasini MC, Tanganelli S, Fuxe K, Schwarcz R, Ferraro L. Kynurenic acid, by targeting α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, modulates extracellular GABA levels in the rat striatum in vivo. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 37: 1470-7. PMID 23442092 DOI: 10.1111/ejn.12160  0.44
2013 Alexander KS, Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Pershing ML, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Early developmental elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility in adults: reversal with galantamine. Neuroscience. 238: 19-28. PMID 23395862 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.063  0.44
2013 Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic acid as an antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain: facts and challenges. Biochemical Pharmacology. 85: 1027-32. PMID 23270993 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2012.12.014  0.44
2012 Schwarcz R, Bruno JP, Muchowski PJ, Wu HQ. Kynurenines in the mammalian brain: when physiology meets pathology. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 13: 465-77. PMID 22678511 DOI: 10.1038/nrn3257  0.44
2012 Green EW, Campesan S, Breda C, Sathyasaikumar KV, Muchowski PJ, Schwarcz R, Kyriacou CP, Giorgini F. Drosophila eye color mutants as therapeutic tools for Huntington disease. Fly. 6: 117-20. PMID 22634544 DOI: 10.4161/fly.19999  0.44
2012 Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Elmer GI, Bruno JP, Schwarcz R. Pre- and postnatal exposure to kynurenine causes cognitive deficits in adulthood. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 35: 1605-12. PMID 22515201 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08064.x  0.44
2012 Wang XD, Notarangelo FM, Wang JZ, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine production from D-kynurenine in mice. Brain Research. 1455: 1-9. PMID 22498176 DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.03.026  0.44
2012 Notarangelo FM, Wu HQ, Macherone A, Graham DR, Schwarcz R. Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection of extracellular kynurenine and related metabolites in normal and lesioned rat brain. Analytical Biochemistry. 421: 573-81. PMID 22239963 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2011.12.032  0.44
2012 Pérez-de la Cruz V, Amori L, Sathyasaikumar KV, Wang XD, Notarangelo FM, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Enzymatic transamination of D-kynurenine generates kynurenic acid in rat and human brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 120: 1026-35. PMID 22224417 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07653.x  0.44
2012 Alexander KS, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Acute elevations of brain kynurenic acid impair cognitive flexibility: normalization by the alpha7 positive modulator galantamine. Psychopharmacology. 220: 627-37. PMID 22038535 DOI: 10.1007/s00213-011-2539-2  0.44
2012 Stachowski EK, Schwarcz R. Regulation of quinolinic acid neosynthesis in mouse, rat and human brain by iron and iron chelators in vitro. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 119: 123-31. PMID 21833493 DOI: 10.1007/s00702-011-0694-6  0.44
2011 Pocivavsek A, Wu HQ, Potter MC, Elmer GI, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R. Fluctuations in endogenous kynurenic acid control hippocampal glutamate and memory. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 36: 2357-67. PMID 21796108 DOI: 10.1038/npp.2011.127  0.44
2011 Wonodi I, Stine OC, Sathyasaikumar KV, Roberts RC, Mitchell BD, Hong LE, Kajii Y, Thaker GK, Schwarcz R. Downregulated kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene expression and enzyme activity in schizophrenia and genetic association with schizophrenia endophenotypes. Archives of General Psychiatry. 68: 665-74. PMID 21727251 DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.71  0.44
2011 Zwilling D, Huang SY, Sathyasaikumar KV, Notarangelo FM, Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Lee J, Truong J, Andrews-Zwilling Y, Hsieh EW, Louie JY, Wu T, Scearce-Levie K, Patrick C, Adame A, ... ... Schwarcz R, et al. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition in blood ameliorates neurodegeneration. Cell. 145: 863-74. PMID 21640374 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.05.020  0.44
2011 Campesan S, Green EW, Breda C, Sathyasaikumar KV, Muchowski PJ, Schwarcz R, Kyriacou CP, Giorgini F. The kynurenine pathway modulates neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Huntington's disease. Current Biology : Cb. 21: 961-6. PMID 21636279 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.04.028  0.44
2011 Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Eisenberg HM, Kajii Y, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX. Age dependency of inhibition of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and tonically active N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by endogenously produced kynurenic acid in the brain. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 337: 572-82. PMID 21270133 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.110.177386  0.44
2011 Buchanan RW, Schwarcz R. α7 Nicotinic receptor agonists as cognitive treatments: is less (or less often) more? Biological Psychiatry. 69: 5-6. PMID 21145443 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.11.004  0.44
2011 Sathyasaikumar KV, Stachowski EK, Wonodi I, Roberts RC, Rassoulpour A, McMahon RP, Schwarcz R. Impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 37: 1147-56. PMID 21036897 DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbq112  0.44
2010 Thevandavakkam MA, Schwarcz R, Muchowski PJ, Giorgini F. Targeting kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO): implications for therapy in Huntington's disease. Cns & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. 9: 791-800. PMID 20942784  0.44
2010 Rossi F, Valentina C, Garavaglia S, Sathyasaikumar KV, Schwarcz R, Kojima S, Okuwaki K, Ono S, Kajii Y, Rizzi M. Crystal structure-based selective targeting of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme kynurenine aminotransferase II for cognitive enhancement. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 53: 5684-9. PMID 20684605 DOI: 10.1021/jm100464k  0.44
2010 Konradsson-Geuken A, Wu HQ, Gash CR, Alexander KS, Campbell A, Sozeri Y, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Cortical kynurenic acid bi-directionally modulates prefrontal glutamate levels as assessed by microdialysis and rapid electrochemistry. Neuroscience. 169: 1848-59. PMID 20600676 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.05.052  0.44
2010 Potter MC, Elmer GI, Bergeron R, Albuquerque EX, Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 35: 1734-42. PMID 20336058 DOI: 10.1038/npp.2010.39  0.44
2010 Sathyasaikumar KV, Stachowski EK, Amori L, Guidetti P, Muchowski PJ, Schwarcz R. Dysfunctional kynurenine pathway metabolism in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. Journal of Neurochemistry. 113: 1416-25. PMID 20236387 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06675.x  0.44
2010 Wonodi I, Schwarcz R. Cortical kynurenine pathway metabolism: a novel target for cognitive enhancement in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 36: 211-8. PMID 20147364 DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbq002  0.44
2010 Wu HQ, Pereira EF, Bruno JP, Pellicciari R, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R. The astrocyte-derived alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist kynurenic acid controls extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : Mn. 40: 204-10. PMID 19690987 DOI: 10.1007/s12031-009-9235-2  0.44
2010 Schwarcz R, Guidetti P, Sathyasaikumar KV, Muchowski PJ. Of mice, rats and men: Revisiting the quinolinic acid hypothesis of Huntington's disease. Progress in Neurobiology. 90: 230-45. PMID 19394403 DOI: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.005  0.44
2010 Sloviter RS, Bumanglag AV, Schwarcz R, Frotscher M. Abnormal dentate gyrus network circuitry in temporal lobe epilepsy Epilepsia. 51: 41. DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2010.02827.x  0.44
2009 Amori L, Guidetti P, Pellicciari R, Kajii Y, Schwarcz R. On the relationship between the two branches of the kynurenine pathway in the rat brain in vivo. Journal of Neurochemistry. 109: 316-25. PMID 19226371 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05893.x  0.44
2009 Zmarowski A, Wu HQ, Brooks JM, Potter MC, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R, Bruno JP. Astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid modulates basal and evoked cortical acetylcholine release. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 29: 529-38. PMID 19187269 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06594.x  0.44
2009 Amori L, Wu HQ, Marinozzi M, Pellicciari R, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Specific inhibition of kynurenate synthesis enhances extracellular dopamine levels in the rodent striatum. Neuroscience. 159: 196-203. PMID 19138730 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.11.055  0.44
2008 Rossi F, Schwarcz R, Rizzi M. Curiosity to kill the KAT (kynurenine aminotransferase): structural insights into brain kynurenic acid synthesis. Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 18: 748-55. PMID 18950711 DOI: 10.1016/j.sbi.2008.09.009  0.44
2008 Pellicciari R, Venturoni F, Bellocchi D, Carotti A, Marinozzi M, Macchiarulo A, Amori L, Schwarcz R. Sequence variants in kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) orthologs determine different potencies of the inhibitor S-ESBA. Chemmedchem. 3: 1199-202. PMID 18537204 DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200800109  0.44
2008 Lehrmann E, Guidetti P, Löve A, Williamson J, Bertram EH, Schwarcz R. Glial activation precedes seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration in measles virus-infected mice. Epilepsia. 49: 13-23. PMID 18226168 DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01489.x  0.44
2008 Schwarcz R. Early glial dysfunction in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 49: 1-2. PMID 18226166 DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01487.x  0.44
2008 Brun VH, Leutgeb S, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Witter MP, Moser EI, Moser MB. Impaired spatial representation in CA1 after lesion of direct input from entorhinal cortex. Neuron. 57: 290-302. PMID 18215625 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.11.034  0.44
2008 Giorgini F, Möller T, Kwan W, Zwilling D, Wacker JL, Hong S, Tsai LC, Cheah CS, Schwarcz R, Guidetti P, Muchowski PJ. Histone deacetylase inhibition modulates kynurenine pathway activation in yeast, microglia, and mice expressing a mutant huntingtin fragment. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283: 7390-400. PMID 18079112 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M708192200  0.44
2008 Grégoire L, Rassoulpour A, Guidetti P, Samadi P, Bédard PJ, Izzo E, Schwarcz R, Di Paolo T. Prolonged kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition reduces development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys. Behavioural Brain Research. 186: 161-7. PMID 17868931 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2007.08.007  0.44
2007 Poeggeler B, Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Guidetti P, Roberts RC, Schwarcz R. Dopamine receptor activation reveals a novel, kynurenate-sensitive component of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotoxicity. Neuroscience. 148: 188-97. PMID 17629627 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.05.033  0.44
2007 Lopes C, Pereira EF, Wu HQ, Purushottamachar P, Njar V, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX. Competitive antagonism between the nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand galantamine and kynurenic acid at alpha7* nicotinic receptors. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 322: 48-58. PMID 17446300 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.107.123109  0.44
2007 Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 102: 103-11. PMID 17442055 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04556.x  0.44
2007 Schwarcz R, Hunter CA. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: linkage through astrocyte-derived kynurenic acid? Schizophrenia Bulletin. 33: 652-3. PMID 17434932 DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbm030  0.44
2007 Ceresoli-Borroni G, Guidetti P, Amori L, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R. Perinatal kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition in rodents: pathophysiological implications. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 85: 845-54. PMID 17279543 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.21183  0.44
2007 Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Potter MC, Kauffman FC, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX. Strain-specific nicotinic modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the CA1 field of the rat hippocampus: August Copenhagen Irish versus Sprague-Dawley. Journal of Neurophysiology. 97: 1163-70. PMID 17151218 DOI: 10.1152/jn.01119.2006  0.44
2007 Guidetti P, Hoffman GE, Melendez-Ferro M, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R. Astrocytic localization of kynurenine aminotransferase II in the rat brain visualized by immunocytochemistry. Glia. 55: 78-92. PMID 17024659 DOI: 10.1002/glia.20432  0.44
2007 Wu HQ, Rassoulpour A, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic acid leads, dopamine follows: a new case of volume transmission in the brain? Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 114: 33-41. PMID 16932989 DOI: 10.1007/s00702-006-0562-y  0.44
2006 Pellicciari R, Rizzo RC, Costantino G, Marinozzi M, Amori L, Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Modulators of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism: synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of (S)-4-(ethylsulfonyl)benzoylalanine, a potent and selective kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II) inhibitor. Chemmedchem. 1: 528-31. PMID 16892388 DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.200500095  0.44
2006 Belladonna ML, Grohmann U, Guidetti P, Volpi C, Bianchi R, Fioretti MC, Schwarcz R, Fallarino F, Puccetti P. Kynurenine pathway enzymes in dendritic cells initiate tolerogenesis in the absence of functional IDO. Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 177: 130-7. PMID 16785507  0.44
2006 Guidetti P, Bates GP, Graham RK, Hayden MR, Leavitt BR, MacDonald ME, Slow EJ, Wheeler VC, Woodman B, Schwarcz R. Elevated brain 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate levels in Huntington disease mice. Neurobiology of Disease. 23: 190-7. PMID 16697652 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2006.02.011  0.44
2006 Ceresoli-Borroni G, Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Chronic neuroleptic treatment reduces endogenous kynurenic acid levels in rat brain. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 113: 1355-65. PMID 16465454 DOI: 10.1007/s00702-005-0432-z  0.44
2006 Bari F, Nagy K, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R, Busija DW, Domoki F. Kynurenic acid attenuates NMDA-induced pial arteriolar dilation in newborn pigs. Brain Research. 1069: 39-46. PMID 16388784 DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.033  0.44
2006 Sapko MT, Guidetti P, Yu P, Tagle DA, Pellicciari R, Schwarcz R. Endogenous kynurenate controls the vulnerability of striatal neurons to quinolinate: Implications for Huntington's disease. Experimental Neurology. 197: 31-40. PMID 16099455 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.07.004  0.44
2005 Zhang DX, Williamson JM, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Bertram EH. In situ-produced 7-chlorokynurenate has different effects on evoked responses in rats with limbic epilepsy in comparison to naive controls. Epilepsia. 46: 1708-15. PMID 16302850 DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.00281.x  0.44
2005 Wu HQ, Rassoulpour A, Goodman JH, Scharfman HE, Bertram EH, Schwarcz R. Kynurenate and 7-chlorokynurenate formation in chronically epileptic rats. Epilepsia. 46: 1010-6. PMID 16026552 DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2005.67404.x  0.44
2005 Samadi P, Grégoire L, Rassoulpour A, Guidetti P, Izzo E, Schwarcz R, Bédard PJ. Effect of kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibition on the dyskinetic and antiparkinsonian responses to levodopa in Parkinsonian monkeys. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 20: 792-802. PMID 15954116 DOI: 10.1002/mds.20596  0.44
2005 Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Ferre S, Schwarcz R. Nanomolar concentrations of kynurenic acid reduce extracellular dopamine levels in the striatum. Journal of Neurochemistry. 93: 762-5. PMID 15836634 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03134.x  0.44
2005 Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Albuquerque EX, Schwarcz R. Prolonged nicotine administration results in biphasic, brain-specific changes in kynurenate levels in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 30: 697-704. PMID 15496939 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300583  0.44
2004 Guidetti P, Luthi-Carter RE, Augood SJ, Schwarcz R. Neostriatal and cortical quinolinate levels are increased in early grade Huntington's disease. Neurobiology of Disease. 17: 455-61. PMID 15571981 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2004.07.006  0.44
2004 Yu P, Di Prospero NA, Sapko MT, Cai T, Chen A, Melendez-Ferro M, Du F, Whetsell WO, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R, Tagle DA. Biochemical and phenotypic abnormalities in kynurenine aminotransferase II-deficient mice. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 24: 6919-30. PMID 15282294 DOI: 10.1128/MCB.24.16.6919-6930.2004  0.44
2004 Wu HQ, Fuxe K, Schwarcz R. Neuronal A1 receptors mediate increase in extracellular kynurenic acid after local intrastriatal adenosine infusion. Journal of Neurochemistry. 90: 621-8. PMID 15255939 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02531.x  0.44
2004 Alkondon M, Pereira EF, Yu P, Arruda EZ, Almeida LE, Guidetti P, Fawcett WP, Sapko MT, Randall WR, Schwarcz R, Tagle DA, Albuquerque EX. Targeted deletion of the kynurenine aminotransferase ii gene reveals a critical role of endogenous kynurenic acid in the regulation of synaptic transmission via alpha7 nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 24: 4635-48. PMID 15140935 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5631-03.2004  0.44
2004 Schwarcz R. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation as a drug target. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 4: 12-7. PMID 15018833 DOI: 10.1016/j.coph.2003.10.006  0.44
2004 Kiss C, Shepard PD, Bari F, Schwarcz R. Cortical spreading depression augments kynurenate levels and reduces malonate toxicity in the rat cortex. Brain Research. 1002: 129-35. PMID 14988042 DOI: 10.1016/j.brainres.2004.01.004  0.44
2003 Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. 3-Hydroxykynurenine and quinolinate: pathogenic synergism in early grade Huntington's disease? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 527: 137-45. PMID 15206726  0.44
2003 Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Determination of alpha-aminoadipic acid in brain, peripheral tissues, and body fluids using GC/MS with negative chemical ionization. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 118: 132-9. PMID 14559362 DOI: 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.08.004  0.44
2003 Shepard PD, Joy B, Clerkin L, Schwarcz R. Micromolar brain levels of kynurenic acid are associated with a disruption of auditory sensory gating in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 28: 1454-62. PMID 12700696 DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300188  0.44
2003 Kiss C, Ceresoli-Borroni G, Guidetti P, Zielke CL, Zielke HR, Schwarcz R. Kynurenate production by cultured human astrocytes. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 110: 1-14. PMID 12541009 DOI: 10.1007/s00702-002-0770-z  0.44
2002 Wu HQ, Lee SC, Scharfman HE, Schwarcz R. L-4-chlorokynurenine attenuates kainate-induced seizures and lesions in the rat. Experimental Neurology. 177: 222-32. PMID 12429224 DOI: 10.1006/exnr.2002.7971  0.44
2002 Schwarcz R, Pellicciari R. Manipulation of brain kynurenines: glial targets, neuronal effects, and clinical opportunities. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 303: 1-10. PMID 12235226 DOI: 10.1124/jpet.102.034439  0.44
2002 Schwarcz R, Witter MP. Memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: the role of entorhinal lesions. Epilepsy Research. 50: 161-77. PMID 12151126 DOI: 10.1016/S0920-1211(02)00077-3  0.44
2002 Wu HQ, Rassoulpour A, Schwarcz R. Effect of systemic L-DOPA administration on extracellular kynurenate levels in the rat striatum. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 109: 239-49. PMID 11956948 DOI: 10.1007/s007020200020  0.44
2001 Lehrmann E, Molinari A, Speciale C, Schwarcz R. Immunohistochemical visualization of newly formed quinolinate in the normal and excitotoxically lesioned rat striatum. Experimental Brain Research. 141: 389-97. PMID 11715084 DOI: 10.1007/s002210100887  0.44
2001 Denslow MJ, Eid T, Du F, Schwarcz R, Lothman EW, Steward O. Disruption of inhibition in area CA1 of the hippocampus in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Journal of Neurophysiology. 86: 2231-45. PMID 11698514  0.44
2001 Schwarcz R, Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Medoff D, Tamminga CA, Roberts RC. Increased cortical kynurenate content in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry. 50: 521-30. PMID 11600105 DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01078-2  0.44
2001 Hilmas C, Pereira EF, Alkondon M, Rassoulpour A, Schwarcz R, Albuquerque EX. The brain metabolite kynurenic acid inhibits alpha7 nicotinic receptor activity and increases non-alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression: physiopathological implications. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 21: 7463-73. PMID 11567036  0.44
2001 Eid T, Du F, Schwarcz R. Ibotenate injections into the pre- and parasubiculum provide partial protection against kainate-induced epileptic damage in layer III of rat entorhinal cortex. Epilepsia. 42: 817-24. PMID 11488878 DOI: 10.1046/j.1528-1157.2001.042007817.x  0.44
2001 Ceresoli-Borroni G, Schwarcz R. Neonatal asphyxia in rats: acute effects on cerebral kynurenine metabolism. Pediatric Research. 50: 231-5. PMID 11477208 DOI: 10.1203/00006450-200108000-00011  0.44
2001 Guidetti P, Charles V, Chen EY, Reddy PH, Kordower JH, Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R, Tagle DA. Early degenerative changes in transgenic mice expressing mutant huntingtin involve dendritic abnormalities but no impairment of mitochondrial energy production. Experimental Neurology. 169: 340-50. PMID 11358447 DOI: 10.1006/exnr.2000.7626  0.44
2001 Lee SC, Schwarcz R. Excitotoxic injury stimulates pro-drug-induced 7-chlorokynurenate formation in the rat striatum in vivo. Neuroscience Letters. 304: 185-8. PMID 11343833 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)01791-8  0.44
2001 Schwarcz R. Glutamate 2000: old dog, new tricks. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 296: 659-62. PMID 11160655  0.44
2000 Battaglia G, Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Hodgkins PS, Kiss C, Nicoletti F, Schwarcz R. Some metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands reduce kynurenate synthesis in rats by intracellular inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II. Journal of Neurochemistry. 75: 2051-60. PMID 11032894 DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0752051.x  0.44
2000 Ceresoli-Borroni G, Schwarcz R. Perinatal kynurenine pathway metabolism in the normal and asphyctic rat brain. Amino Acids. 19: 311-23. PMID 11026502 DOI: 10.1007/s007260070062  0.44
2000 Scharfman HE, Goodman JH, Schwarcz R. Electrophysiological effects of exogenous and endogenous kynurenic acid in the rat brain: studies in vivo and in vitro. Amino Acids. 19: 283-97. PMID 11026500 DOI: 10.1007/s007260070060  0.44
2000 Schwarcz R, Eid T, Du F. Neurons in layer III of the entorhinal cortex. A role in epileptogenesis and epilepsy? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 911: 328-42. PMID 10911883  0.44
2000 Scharfman HE, Witter MP, Schwarcz R. The parahippocampal region. Implications for neurological and psychiatric diseases. Introduction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 911: ix-xiii. PMID 10911863  0.44
2000 Wu HQ, Guidetti P, Goodman JH, Varasi M, Ceresoli-Borroni G, Speciale C, Scharfman HE, Schwarcz R. Kynurenergic manipulations influence excitatory synaptic function and excitotoxic vulnerability in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Neuroscience. 97: 243-51. PMID 10799756 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00030-0  0.44
2000 Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. In situ produced 7-chlorokynurenate provides protection against quinolinate- and malonate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat striatum. Experimental Neurology. 163: 123-30. PMID 10785450 DOI: 10.1006/exnr.1999.7284  0.44
2000 Guidetti P, Reddy PH, Tagle DA, Schwarcz R. Early kynurenergic impairment in Huntington's disease and in a transgenic animal model. Neuroscience Letters. 283: 233-5. PMID 10754231 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3940(00)00956-3  0.44
2000 Wu HQ, Lee SC, Schwarcz R. Systemic administration of 4-chlorokynurenine prevents quinolinate neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. European Journal of Pharmacology. 390: 267-74. PMID 10708733 DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00024-8  0.44
2000 Coyle JT, Schwarcz R. Mind glue: implications of glial cell biology for psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry. 57: 90-3. PMID 10632240  0.44
1999 Schwarcz R, Ceresoli-Borroni G, Wu HQ, Rassoulpour A, Poeggeler B, Hodgkins PS, Guidetti P. Modulation and function of kynurenic acid in the immature rat brain. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 467: 113-23. PMID 10721048  0.44
1999 Fornstedt-Wallin B, Lundström J, Fredriksson G, Schwarcz R, Luthman J. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid accumulation following administration of the 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase inhibitor NCR-631. European Journal of Pharmacology. 386: 15-24. PMID 10611459 DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00683-4  0.44
1999 Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. 3-Hydroxykynurenine potentiates quinolinate but not NMDA toxicity in the rat striatum. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 11: 3857-63. PMID 10583474 DOI: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1999.00806.x  0.44
1999 Scharfman HE, Hodgkins PS, Lee SC, Schwarcz R. Quantitative differences in the effects of de novo produced and exogenous kynurenic acid in rat brain slices. Neuroscience Letters. 274: 111-4. PMID 10553950 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00690-4  0.44
1999 Ceresoli-Borroni G, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Acute and chronic changes in kynurenate formation following an intrastriatal quinolinate injection in rats. Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 106: 229-42. PMID 10392532 DOI: 10.1007/s007020050153  0.44
1999 Eid T, Schwarcz R, Ottersen OP. Ultrastructure and immunocytochemical distribution of GABA in layer III of the rat medial entorhinal cortex following aminooxyacetic acid-induced seizures. Experimental Brain Research. 125: 463-75. PMID 10323293 DOI: 10.1007/s002210050704  0.44
1999 Hodgkins PS, Wu HQ, Zielke HR, Schwarcz R. 2-Oxoacids regulate kynurenic acid production in the rat brain: studies in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Neurochemistry. 72: 643-51. PMID 9930736 DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0720643.x  0.44
1999 Poeggeler B, Pappolla MA, Hardeland R, Rassoulpour A, Hodgkins PS, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Indole-3-propionate: a potent hydroxyl radical scavenger in rat brain. Brain Research. 815: 382-8. PMID 9878843 DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(98)01027-0  0.44
1999 Linderberg M, Hellberg S, Björk S, Gotthammar B, Högberg T, Persson K, Schwarcz R, Luthman J, Johansson R. Synthesis and QSAR of substituted 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid derivatives as inhibitors of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase (3-HAO) European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 34: 729-744. DOI: 10.1016/S0223-5234(99)00220-2  0.44
1998 Schwarcz R, Poeggeler B, Rassoulpour A, Ceresoli-Borroni G, Hodgkins PS. Regulation of kynurenic acid levels in the developing rat brain. Amino Acids. 14: 243-9. PMID 9871469 DOI: 10.1007/BF01345270  0.44
1998 Scharfman HE, Goodman JH, Du F, Schwarcz R. Chronic changes in synaptic responses of entorhinal and hippocampal neurons after amino-oxyacetic acid (AOAA)-induced entorhinal cortical neuron loss. Journal of Neurophysiology. 80: 3031-46. PMID 9862904  0.44
1998 Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Focal microinjection of gamma-acetylenic GABA into the rat entorhinal cortex: behavioral and electroencephalographic abnormalities and preferential neuron loss in layer III. Experimental Neurology. 153: 203-13. PMID 9784280 DOI: 10.1006/exnr.1998.6908  0.44
1998 Hodgkins PS, Schwarcz R. Metabolic control of kynurenic acid formation in the rat brain. Developmental Neuroscience. 20: 408-16. PMID 9778579 DOI: 10.1159/000017338  0.44
1998 Rassoulpour A, Wu HQ, Poeggeler B, Schwarcz R. Systemic d-amphetamine administration causes a reduction of kynurenic acid levels in rat brain. Brain Research. 802: 111-8. PMID 9748528 DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(98)00577-0  0.44
1998 Poeggeler B, Rassoulpour A, Guidetti P, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Dopaminergic control of kynurenate levels and N-methyl-D-aspartate toxicity in the developing rat striatum. Developmental Neuroscience. 20: 146-53. PMID 9691189 DOI: 10.1159/000017309  0.44
1998 Du F, Eid T, Schwarcz R. Neuronal damage after the injection of aminooxyacetic acid into the rat entorhinal cortex: a silver impregnation study. Neuroscience. 82: 1165-78. PMID 9466438 DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00354-0  0.44
1997 Guidetti P, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Characterization of rat brain kynurenine aminotransferases I and II. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 50: 457-65. PMID 9364331 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19971101)50:3<457::AID-JNR12>3.0.CO;2-3  0.44
1997 Ogren SO, Ferré S, Schwarcz R, Fuxe K. Prolonged treatment with haloperidol and clozapine in the rat: differential effects on spontaneous and theophylline-induced motor activity. Neuroscience Letters. 232: 21-4. PMID 9292882 DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00564-8  0.44
1997 Gramsbergen JB, Hodgkins PS, Rassoulpour A, Turski WA, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Brain-specific modulation of kynurenic acid synthesis in the rat. Journal of Neurochemistry. 69: 290-8. PMID 9202322  0.44
1997 Ceresoli G, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Metabolism of [5-(3)H]kynurenine in the developing rat brain in vivo: effect of intrastriatal ibotenate injections. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 100: 73-81. PMID 9174248 DOI: 10.1016/S0165-3806(97)00029-1  0.44
1997 Tamminga CA, Schwarcz R, MacDonald ME. Images in neuroscience. Clinical genetics, I. Huntington's disease: from disease to gene. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 154: 725. PMID 9167497  0.44
1997 Wu HQ, Salituro FG, Schwarcz R. Enzyme-catalyzed production of the neuroprotective NMDA receptor antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid in the rat brain in vivo. European Journal of Pharmacology. 319: 13-20. PMID 9030892 DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(96)00829-1  0.44
1996 Hokari M, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Smith QR. Facilitated brain uptake of 4-chlorokynurenine and conversion to 7-chlorokynurenic acid. Neuroreport. 8: 15-8. PMID 9051744  0.44
1996 Tsai MJ, Chang YF, Schwarcz R, Brookes N. Characterization of L-alpha-aminoadipic acid transport in cultured rat astrocytes. Brain Research. 741: 166-73. PMID 9001719 DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(96)00910-9  0.44
1996 Speciale C, Wu HQ, Cini M, Marconi M, Varasi M, Schwarcz R. (R,S)-3,4-dichlorobenzoylalanine (FCE 28833A) causes a large and persistent increase in brain kynurenic acid levels in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 315: 263-7. PMID 8982663 DOI: 10.1016/S0014-2999(96)00613-9  0.44
1996 Cini M, Bormetti R, Marconi M, Molinari A, Veneroni O, Varasi M, Schwarcz R, Speciale C. 28833, a selective kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibitor. Effects on the kynurenine pathway metabolites in the gerbil. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 535-8. PMID 8906318  0.44
1996 Giordani A, Corti L, Cini M, Marconi M, Pillan A, Ferrario R, Schwarcz R, Guidetti P, Speciale C, Varasi M. Benzoylalanine analogues as inhibitors of rat brain kynureninase and kynurenine 3-hydroxylase. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 499-505. PMID 8906311  0.44
1996 Mosca M, Cozzi L, Breton J, Avanzi N, Toma S, Okuno E, Schwarcz R, Speciale C, Magagnin S, Mostardini M, Benatti L. Cloning of rat and human kynurenine aminotransferase. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 449-54. PMID 8906304  0.44
1996 Curatolo L, Caccia C, Speciale C, Raimondi L, Cini M, Marconi M, Molinari A, Schwarcz R. Modulation of extracellular kynurenic acid content by excitatory amino acids in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 273-6. PMID 8906277  0.44
1996 Speciale C, Cini M, Wu HQ, Salvati P, Schwarcz R, Molinari A, Calabresi M, Varasi M. Kynurenic acid-enhancing and anti-ischemic effects of the potent kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibitor FCE 28833 in rodents. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 221-7. PMID 8906269  0.44
1996 Schwarcz R, Ceresoli G, Guidetti P. Kynurenine metabolism in the rat brain in vivo. Effect of acute excitotoxic insults. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 398: 211-9. PMID 8906268  0.44
1996 Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. Seizure activity causes elevation of endogenous extracellular kynurenic acid in the rat brain. Brain Research Bulletin. 39: 155-62. PMID 8866691 DOI: 10.1016/0361-9230(95)02087-X  0.44
1996 Ceresoli G, Fuller MS, Schwarcz R. Excitotoxic lesions of the rat striatum: different responses of kynurenine pathway enzymes during ontogeny. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 92: 61-9. PMID 8861723 DOI: 10.1016/0165-3806(95)00200-6  0.44
1996 Eid T, Jorritsma-Byham B, Schwarcz R, Witter MP. Afferents to the seizure-sensitive neurons in layer III of the medial entorhinal area: a tracing study in the rat. Experimental Brain Research. 109: 209-18. PMID 8738371  0.44
1996 Giulian D, Yu J, Li X, Tom D, Li J, Wendt E, Lin SN, Schwarcz R, Noonan C. Study of receptor-mediated neurotoxins released by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes found in human brain. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 16: 3139-53. PMID 8627353  0.44
1996 Varasi M, Della Torre A, Heidempergher F, Pevarello P, Speciale C, Guidetti P, Wells DR, Schwarcz R. Derivatives of kynurenine as inhibitors of rat brain kynurenine aminotransferase European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 31: 11-21. DOI: 10.1016/S0223-5234(96)80002-X  0.44
1995 Wu HQ, Monno A, Schwarcz R, Vezzani A. Electrical kindling is associated with a lasting increase in the extracellular levels of kynurenic acid in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience Letters. 198: 91-4. PMID 8592649 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(95)11971-X  0.44
1995 Eid T, Du F, Schwarcz R. Differential neuronal vulnerability to amino-oxyacetate and quinolinate in the rat parahippocampal region. Neuroscience. 68: 645-56. PMID 8577365 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(95)00183-J  0.44
1995 Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. L-alpha-aminoadipic acid as a regulator of kynurenic acid production in the hippocampus: a microdialysis study in freely moving rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 281: 55-61. PMID 8566117 DOI: 10.1016/0014-2999(95)00224-9  0.44
1995 Roberts RC, McCarthy KE, Du F, Ottersen OP, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase-containing astrocytic processes surround glutamate-containing axon terminals in the rat striatum. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 15: 1150-61. PMID 7869091  0.44
1995 Jauch D, Urba?ska EM, Guidetti P, Bird ED, Vonsattel JP, Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. Dysfunction of brain kynurenic acid metabolism in Huntington's disease: focus on kynurenine aminotransferases. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 130: 39-47. PMID 7650530 DOI: 10.1016/0022-510X(94)00280-2  0.44
1995 Guidetti P, Eastman CL, Schwarcz R. Metabolism of [5-3H]kynurenine in the rat brain in vivo: evidence for the existence of a functional kynurenine pathway. Journal of Neurochemistry. 65: 2621-32. PMID 7595559  0.44
1995 Du F, Schwarcz R, Tamminga CA. Entorhinal cortex in temporal lobe epilepsy. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 152: 826. PMID 7538730  0.44
1995 Du F, Eid T, Lothman EW, Köhler C, Schwarcz R. Preferential neuronal loss in layer III of the medial entorhinal cortex in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 15: 6301-13. PMID 7472396  0.44
1994 Salituro FG, Tomlinson RC, Baron BM, Palfreyman MG, McDonald IA, Schmidt W, Wu HQ, Guidetti P, Schwarcz R. Enzyme-activated antagonists of the strychnine-insensitive glycine/NMDA receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 37: 334-6. PMID 8308859  0.44
1994 Baran H, Okuno E, Kido R, Schwarcz R. Purification and characterization of kynurenine aminotransferase I from human brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 62: 730-8. PMID 8294935  0.44
1994 Walsh JL, Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. 4-Chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate inhibits quinolinate production in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Brain Research Bulletin. 33: 513-6. PMID 8186995 DOI: 10.1016/0361-9230(94)90076-0  0.44
1994 Guidetti P, Walsh JL, Schwarcz R. A fluorimetric assay for the determination of anthranilic acid in biological materials. Analytical Biochemistry. 220: 181-4. PMID 7978243 DOI: 10.1006/abio.1994.1316  0.44
1994 Roberts RC, McCarthy KE, Du F, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Immunocytochemical localization of the quinolinic acid synthesizing enzyme, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase, in the rat substantia nigra. Brain Research. 650: 229-38. PMID 7953687 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(94)91786-8  0.44
1994 Mosca M, Cozzi L, Breton J, Speciale C, Okuno E, Schwarcz R, Benatti L. Molecular cloning of rat kynurenine aminotransferase: identity with glutamine transaminase K. Febs Letters. 353: 21-4. PMID 7926014 DOI: 10.1016/0014-5793(94)01003-X  0.44
1994 Ferré S, Schwarcz R, Li XM, Snaprud P, Ogren SO, Fuxe K. Chronic haloperidol treatment leads to an increase in the intramembrane interaction between adenosine A2 and dopamine D2 receptors in the neostriatum. Psychopharmacology. 116: 279-84. PMID 7892417 DOI: 10.1007/BF02245329  0.44
1994 Wu HQ, Schwarcz R, Shepard PD. Excitatory amino acid-induced excitation of dopamine-containing neurons in the rat substantia nigra: modulation by kynurenic acid. Synapse (New York, N.Y.). 16: 219-30. PMID 7515199 DOI: 10.1002/syn.890160307  0.44
1993 Baran H, Schwarcz R. Regional differences in the ontogenetic pattern of kynurenine aminotransferase in the rat brain. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 74: 283-6. PMID 8403387 DOI: 10.1016/0165-3806(93)90014-2  0.44
1993 Schmidt W, Guidetti P, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Characterization of human brain kynurenine aminotransferases using [3H]kynurenine as a substrate. Neuroscience. 55: 177-84. PMID 8350986  0.4
1993 McMaster OG, Baran H, Wu HQ, Du F, French ED, Schwarcz R. gamma-Acetylenic GABA produces axon-sparing neurodegeneration after focal injection into the rat hippocampus. Experimental Neurology. 124: 184-91. PMID 8287921 DOI: 10.1006/exnr.1993.1188  0.44
1993 Du F, Williamson J, Bertram E, Lothman E, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Kynurenine pathway enzymes in a rat model of chronic epilepsy: immunohistochemical study of activated glial cells. Neuroscience. 55: 975-89. PMID 8232907 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(93)90312-4  0.44
1993 Du F, Whetsell WO, Abou-Khalil B, Blumenkopf B, Lothman EW, Schwarcz R. Preferential neuronal loss in layer III of the entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Research. 16: 223-33. PMID 8119273 DOI: 10.1016/0920-1211(93)90083-J  0.44
1992 Wu HQ, Baran H, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic Acid in the Quinolinate-lesioned Rat Hippocampus: Studies In Vitro and In Vivo. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 4: 1264-1270. PMID 12106390 DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.1992.tb00152.x  0.44
1992 Wu HQ, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. Regulation of kynurenic acid synthesis studied by microdialysis in the dorsal hippocampus of unanesthetized rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 213: 375-80. PMID 1535598 DOI: 10.1016/0014-2999(92)90626-F  0.44
1992 Du F, Schmidt W, Okuno E, Kido R, Köhler C, Schwarcz R. Localization of kynurenine aminotransferase immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 321: 477-87. PMID 1506481 DOI: 10.1002/cne.903210313  0.4
1992 Roberts RC, Du F, McCarthy KE, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Immunocytochemical localization of kynurenine aminotransferase in the rat striatum: a light and electron microscopic study. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 326: 82-90. PMID 1479071 DOI: 10.1002/cne.903260107  0.44
1992 Schwarcz R, Du F, Schmidt W, Turski WA, Gramsbergen JB, Okuno E, Roberts RC. Kynurenic acid: a potential pathogen in brain disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 648: 140-53. PMID 1322078  0.4
1992 Du F, Schwarcz R. Aminooxyacetic acid causes selective neuronal loss in layer III of the rat medial entorhinal cortex. Neuroscience Letters. 147: 185-8. PMID 1283457 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(92)90591-T  0.44
1991 Okuno E, Schmidt W, Parks DA, Nakamura M, Schwarcz R. Measurement of rat brain kynurenine aminotransferase at physiological kynurenine concentrations. Journal of Neurochemistry. 57: 533-40. PMID 2072101  0.4
1991 Wu HQ, Turski WA, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. Systemic kainic acid administration in rats: effects on kynurenic acid production in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Neurology. 113: 47-52. PMID 2044678 DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(91)90145-3  0.44
1991 Okuno E, Nakamura M, Schwarcz R. Two kynurenine aminotransferases in human brain. Brain Research. 542: 307-12. PMID 2029638  0.4
1991 Walsh JL, Todd WP, Carpenter BK, Schwarcz R. 4-Halo-3-hydroxyanthranilates are potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase in the rat brain in vitro and in vivo. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 294: 579-82. PMID 1837691  0.44
1991 McMaster OG, Du F, French ED, Schwarcz R. Focal injection of aminooxyacetic acid produces seizures and lesions in rat hippocampus: evidence for mediation by NMDA receptors. Experimental Neurology. 113: 378-85. PMID 1833221 DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(91)90029-C  0.44
1991 Du F, Okuno E, Whetsell WO, Köhler C, Schwarcz R. Immunohistochemical localization of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in the human neostriatum. Neuroscience. 42: 397-406. PMID 1832752 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(91)90384-Z  0.44
1991 Walsh JL, Todd WP, Carpenter BK, Schwarcz R. 4-halo-3-hydroxyanthranilic acids: potent competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-anthranilic acid oxygenase in vitro. Biochemical Pharmacology. 42: 985-90. PMID 1831362 DOI: 10.1016/0006-2952(91)90279-E  0.44
1991 Kish SJ, Du F, Parks DA, Robitaille Y, Ball MJ, Schut L, Hornykiewicz O, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid catabolism is increased in cerebellum of patients with dominantly inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Annals of Neurology. 29: 100-4. PMID 1825460 DOI: 10.1002/ana.410290119  0.44
1991 Baran H, Schwarcz R. Evidence for the preferential production of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid from anthranilic acid in the rat brain. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 294: 485-8. PMID 1772081  0.44
1991 Schwarcz R, Du F. Quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid in the mammalian brain. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 294: 185-99. PMID 1685291  0.44
1990 Baran H, Schwarcz R. Presence of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in rat tissues and evidence for its production from anthranilic acid in the brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 55: 738-44. PMID 2384749  0.44
1990 Du F, Okuno E, Whetsell WO, Köhler C, Schwarcz R. Distribution of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in the human hippocampal formation and parahippocampal gyrus. The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 295: 71-82. PMID 2341637 DOI: 10.1002/cne.902950107  0.44
1990 Speciale C, Wu HQ, Gramsbergen JB, Turski WA, Ungerstedt U, Schwarcz R. Determination of extracellular kynurenic acid in the striatum of unanesthetized rats: effect of aminooxyacetic acid. Neuroscience Letters. 116: 198-203. PMID 2259449  0.44
1990 Okuno E, Du F, Ishikawa T, Tsujimoto M, Nakamura M, Schwarcz R, Kido R. Purification and characterization of kynurenine-pyruvate aminotransferase from rat kidney and brain. Brain Research. 534: 37-44. PMID 1963565  0.4
1989 Schwarcz R, Okuno E, White RJ. Basal ganglia lesions in the rat: effects on quinolinic acid metabolism. Brain Research. 490: 103-9. PMID 2527078  0.4
1989 Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. Prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of quinolinic acid causes excitotoxic damage in organotypic cultures of rat corticostriatal system. Neuroscience Letters. 97: 271-5. PMID 2524015 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(89)90609-5  0.44
1988 Turski WA, Nakamura M, Todd WP, Carpenter BK, Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. Identification and quantification of kynurenic acid in human brain tissue. Brain Research. 454: 164-9. PMID 3409000 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(88)90815-3  0.44
1988 Köhler C, Eriksson LG, Flood PR, Hardie JA, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid metabolism in the rat brain. Immunohistochemical identification of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in the hippocampal region. The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience. 8: 975-87. PMID 3346732  0.4
1988 Köhler C, Peterson A, Eriksson LG, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Immunohistochemical identification of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in glial cultures from rat brain. Neuroscience Letters. 84: 115-9. PMID 3277086  0.4
1988 Okuno E, White RJ, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase: purification and partial characterization from human liver and brain. Journal of Biochemistry. 103: 1054-9. PMID 3139649  0.4
1988 Köhler C, Eriksson LG, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Localization of quinolinic acid metabolizing enzymes in the rat brain. Immunohistochemical studies using antibodies to 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. Neuroscience. 27: 49-76. PMID 2974127  0.4
1988 Schwarcz R, Okuno E, White RJ, Bird ED, Whetsell WO. 3-Hydroxyanthranilate oxygenase activity is increased in the brains of Huntington disease victims. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 85: 4079-81. PMID 2967497  0.44
1987 Köhler C, Okuno E, Flood PR, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase: preferential glial localization in the rat brain visualized by immunocytochemistry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 84: 3491-5. PMID 3472219  0.4
1987 Okuno E, Köhler C, Schwarcz R. Rat 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase: purification from the liver and immunocytochemical localization in the brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 49: 771-80. PMID 3112306  0.4
1987 Speciale C, Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Increased quinolinic acid metabolism following neuronal degeneration in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research. 436: 18-24. PMID 2961415  0.4
1987 Vezzani A, Sangalli L, Wu HQ, Schwarcz R. ATP as a marker of excitotoxin-induced nerve cell death in vivo. Journal of Neural Transmission. 70: 349-56. PMID 2960779  0.44
1987 Schwarcz R, Speciale C, French ED. Hippocampal kynurenines as etiological factors in seizure disorders. Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. 39: 485-94. PMID 2906431  0.44
1986 Schwarcz R, Speciale C, Okuno E, French ED, Köhler C. Quinolinic acid: a pathogen in seizure disorders? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 203: 697-707. PMID 3024466  0.44
1986 Foster AC, Okuno E, Brougher DS, Schwarcz R. A radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid. Analytical Biochemistry. 158: 98-103. PMID 2948416 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(86)90595-6  0.44
1986 French ED, Vezzani A, Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. Anti-excitotoxic actions of taurine in the rat hippocampus studied in vivo and in vitro. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 203: 349-62. PMID 2947421  0.44
1986 Foster AC, White RJ, Schwarcz R. Synthesis of quinolinic acid by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase in rat brain tissue in vitro. Journal of Neurochemistry. 47: 23-30. PMID 2940338  0.44
1986 Björklund H, Olson L, Dahl D, Schwarcz R. Short- and long-term consequences of intracranial injections of the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid, as evidenced by GFA immunohistochemistry of astrocytes. Brain Research. 371: 267-77. PMID 2938667 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(86)90362-8  0.44
1985 Okuno E, Schwarcz R. Purification of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase from rat liver and brain. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. 841: 112-9. PMID 3926003  0.4
1985 Vezzani A, Ungerstedt U, French ED, Schwarcz R. In vivo brain dialysis of amino acids and simultaneous EEG measurements following intrahippocampal quinolinic acid injection: evidence for a dissociation between neurochemical changes and seizures. Journal of Neurochemistry. 45: 335-44. PMID 3159848 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1985.tb03993.x  0.44
1985 Foster AC, Whetsell WO, Bird ED, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human and rat brain: activity in Huntington's disease and in quinolinate-lesioned rat striatum. Brain Research. 336: 207-14. PMID 3159462 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(85)90647-X  0.44
1985 Nemeroff CB, Mason GA, Bissette G, Parks DA, Schwarcz R. Effects of intrahypothalamic injection of quinolinic acid on anterior pituitary hormone secretion in the unanesthetized rat. Neuroendocrinology. 41: 332-6. PMID 2931614 DOI: 10.1159/000124197  0.44
1985 Foster AC, Schwarcz R. Characterization of quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human blood and observations in Huntington's disease. Journal of Neurochemistry. 45: 199-205. PMID 2582090  0.44
1985 Foster AC, Zinkand WC, Schwarcz R. Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in rat brain. Journal of Neurochemistry. 44: 446-54. PMID 2578178  0.44
1984 Schwarcz R, Brush GS, Foster AC, French ED. Seizure activity and lesions after intrahippocampal quinolinic acid injection. Experimental Neurology. 84: 1-17. PMID 6705878 DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(84)90001-3  0.44
1984 Steiner HX, McBean GJ, Köhler C, Roberts PJ, Schwarcz R. Ibotenate-induced neuronal degeneration in immature rat brain. Brain Research. 307: 117-24. PMID 6466990 DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(84)90467-0  0.44
1984 Foster AC, Vezzani A, French ED, Schwarcz R. Kynurenic acid blocks neurotoxicity and seizures induced in rats by the related brain metabolite quinolinic acid. Neuroscience Letters. 48: 273-8. PMID 6237279 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(84)90050-8  0.44
1984 Schwarcz R, Foster AC, French ED, Whetsell WO, Köhler C. Excitotoxic models for neurodegenerative disorders. Life Sciences. 35: 19-32. PMID 6234446 DOI: 10.1016/0024-3205(84)90148-6  0.44
1984 Foster AC, Miller LP, Oldendorf WH, Schwarcz R. Studies on the disposition of quinolinic acid after intracerebral or systemic administration in the rat. Experimental Neurology. 84: 428-40. PMID 6232146 DOI: 10.1016/0014-4886(84)90239-5  0.44
1983 Schwarcz R, Whetsell WO, Mangano RM. Quinolinic acid: an endogenous metabolite that produces axon-sparing lesions in rat brain. Science (New York, N.Y.). 219: 316-8. PMID 6849138  0.44
1983 Wolfensberger M, Amsler U, Cuénod M, Foster AC, Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. Identification of quinolinic acid in rat and human brain tissue. Neuroscience Letters. 41: 247-52. PMID 6664615 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(83)90458-5  0.44
1983 Whetsell WO, Schwarcz R. The organotypic tissue culture model of corticostriatal system used for examining amino acid neurotoxicity and its antagonism: studies on kainic acid, quinolinic acid and (-) 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum. 19: 53-63. PMID 6321650  0.44
1983 Aldinio C, French ED, Schwarcz R. The effects of intrahippocampal ibotenic acid and their blockade by (-) 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid: morphological and electroencephalographical analysis. Experimental Brain Research. 51: 36-44. PMID 6309547 DOI: 10.1007/BF00236800  0.44
1983 Foster AC, Collins JF, Schwarcz R. On the excitotoxic properties of quinolinic acid, 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acids and structurally related compounds. Neuropharmacology. 22: 1331-42. PMID 6229703 DOI: 10.1016/0028-3908(83)90221-6  0.44
1982 French ED, Aldinio C, Schwarcz R. Intrahippocampal kainic acid, seizures and local neuronal degeneration: relationships assessed in unanesthetized rats. Neuroscience. 7: 2525-36. PMID 7177385 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(82)90212-3  0.44
1982 Schwarcz R, Whetsell WO. Post-mortem high affinity glutamate uptake in human brain. Neuroscience. 7: 1771-8. PMID 6126842 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4522(82)90034-3  0.44
1980 Schwarcz R, Fuxe K, Hökfelt T, Terenius L, Goldstein M. Effects of chronic striatal kainate lesions on some dopaminergic parameters and enkephalin immunoreactive neurons in the basal ganglia. Journal of Neurochemistry. 34: 772-8. PMID 6102111  0.44
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